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Emotional Intelligence 2.0

By Bradberry Travis

  • Window Douglas’s

TalentSmart® is Travis Bradberry and Jean Greaves’s emotional intelligence training, consulting, and testing agency that administers the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal® test. Their position as leaders in the field has given them the chance to observe the progress of hundreds of thousands of individuals at all career levels. In addition, they have taken an interest in the patterns and shifts in larger EQ trends, such as overall implications for health, happiness, career success, and earnings potential; differences and similarities between the generations and the sexes; and the influence of culture.

According to the authors, the notion of emotional intelligence began to gain ground when people realized that IQ could not by itself account for professional success or earnings. After the idea was featured on the cover of Time magazine and on television, interest in the subject burgeoned. Numerous books came out, including Bradberry and Greaves’s The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book, which has since been sold worldwide in more than twenty languages. However, despite training hundreds of people a week in how to improve their EQ, they realized that the demand for learning and understanding emotional intelligence had far outpaced the available resources, so they decided to fill the need by writing Emotional Intelligence 2.0.

Aside from being a best-selling author, Travis Bradberry holds two Ph.D.s from the California School of Professional Psychology, one in clinical and one in industrial/organizational psychology. He is a regular speaker at top companies and the co-founder and president of TalentSmart®, the global leader in emotional intelligence testing and training. Co-author Jean Greaves, who is the co-founder and CEO of TalentSmart®, likewise earned her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology. Her background is in workforce development and healthcare consulting, and her skills include emotional intelligence training as well as public speaking, with an additional focus on leadership development.

One of the fundamental observations of Travis Bradberry and Jean Greaves’s book Emotional Intelligence 2.0 is that IQ, education, and knowledge alone are not the determining factors of success but that success is more often correlated with what is called “emotional intelligence.” The problem that arises is that although the idea of emotional intelligence resonates with a lot of people, no one seems to know just what it is or that it can be learned and improved. Bradberry and Greaves’s book can help us understand its nature and practical manifestation, its effect on our lives, and its role as a self-management tool with the ability to increase our capacity for success.

It is only fitting that the book’s first chapter begins with a true story illustrating emotional intelligence (as well as the lack of it) in action. Butch Connor’s confrontation with a great white shark had an intensity that few of us will ever experience. But that day Butch learned something about his, mind, body and emotions: once he realized that his emotions were governing his body counterproductively, he used his reason to reverse the process—and it worked. He had discovered one of the essential elements of emotional intelligence—the ability to manage his emotions rather than letting them manage him.

Unlike IQ, which Bradberry and Greaves claim to be a fixed learning capacity, EQ can be developed. To this end, the book presents 66 strategies together with an assessment test, both of which are part of a program designed to maximize emotional intelligence in a way that is tailored to each individual. The assessment test, which is strongly recommended, acts as summary of current individual skills, a learning guide, a memory aid, and a means of measuring progress.

In Chapter 2, the authors describe the bigger picture of emotional intelligence before examining the details of the different strategies. They make us aware of the sheer range of our emotions, their different categories and intensities, types of problems typically encountered, the definition of a whole person, and the link between EQ and success.

In Chapter 3, we learn of the four basic skills that constitute EQ: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The chapter focuses on general definitions and case studies so that we can get a sense of what each skill looks like in practice.

Chapter 4 begins by explaining the value of developing our EQ and then introduces us to the Emotional Intelligence Action Plan. Chapters 5 through 8 outline the specific strategies for each of the four skills and the Epilogue summarizes different trends in emotional intelligence and their implications for our world.

The authors’ goal in writing the book was to give as many people as possible the chance to understand and hone their emotional intelligence skills. Just as entire cultures benefit from the cultivation of emotional intelligence, so, too, can individuals, companies, families, and other groups. But the authors warn that EQ skills need to be actively maintained—that they can decline as well as improve and that those who neglect to actively cultivate them run the risk of decreasing their overall quality of life—economically, personally, and professionally. However, those who do take up the challenge to explore and improve this facet of human intelligence will find their own lives and the lives of those around them benefited in multiple ways.

Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

EQ is divided into two main categories: personal and social competence, which are in turn divided into awareness and management. Together, these constitute the four main skills of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. Until recently, EQ has always been eclipsed by IQ, which was thought to be the crucial factor in determining success. Yet studies have revealed that a high IQ accounts for only 20 percent of successes while a high EQ explains an impressive 70 percent. Unlike IQ, though, which Bradberry and Greaves claim to be a static learning capacity, EQ can be developed.

 

The Whole Person

The authors distinguish three main aspects of the person: IQ, EQ, and personality. They define IQ as the fundamental ability to learn that remains the same throughout an individual’s lifetime. Unlike IQ, EQ can be improved through learning and practice, although some people come by it more naturally than others. Furthermore, there is no correlation between IQ and EQ, which are considered entirely separate skills. The same holds true for personality which, like IQ, is deemed unchanging and separate from emotional intelligence. Personality can be used to help improve EQ, but like IQ, it is not essential to the process. Taken together, they give a more complete picture of the whole person.

 

Triggers and Hijackings

The authors define “emotional hijackings” as those instances when our emotions get the better of our thinking and take over our actions, often to our detriment. “Trigger events,” on the other hand, are those events that produce an extended emotional response. The range of possible emotions is extensive, but according to Bradberry and Greaves, they can all be categorized under five main headings: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and shame. These are further divided into high, medium, and low degrees of intensity. On any given day, we typically experience many different specific emotions at varying levels of intensity, yet a lack of emotional awareness plagues two-thirds of the world’s people, who are unable to either identify, comprehend, or manage their own emotions.

 

Self-Awareness

As the name suggests, “self-awareness” means being aware of and understanding your own positive and negative emotions and reactions. It entails being willing to honestly work through both your feelings and whatever triggers them. In fact, according to the authors, just thinking about self-awareness helps to improve the skill, and because it is such a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, a well-developed self-awareness improves a person’s abilities with the other three EQ skills as wells. Finally, being aware of oneself makes an enormous difference in both overall personal satisfaction and job performance and so should be applied to every aspect of our lives.

 

Self-Management

Self-management refers to the action or restraint that results from self-awareness. It is the ability to steer your life in a positive direction, whether that means managing stressful situations or dealing effectively with temporary uncertainty. An important characteristic of self-management is the ability to defer momentary needs or desires in favor of a larger goal. Those who can do this are more likely to achieve their goals while at the same time maintaining their emotional balance. The ability to manage your emotions won’t turn your life into a fairy tale, and there will still be trigger moments, but on the whole, you will experience much more control over your life.

 

Social Awareness

Like self-awareness, social awareness is what the authors call a “foundational skill,” a skill that provides the basis for developing other abilities. It is the awareness or accurate perception and understanding of other people’s thoughts and emotions, involving the ability to pick up on cues through such aspects as body language, facial expression, and tone of voice. In other words, it is the ability to key into people’s emotions, and it has been found to be remarkably consistent across different cultures. To do so requires being both present and clear as well as having an outwardly directed focus that enables you to imagine another person’s or group’s feelings without allowing your own preconceptions to interfere.

 

Relationship Management

Relationship management can be viewed as the culmination all four skills because it utilizes the previous three to effectively manage interactions and relationships. Bradberry and Greaves differentiate between “relationships” and “interactions” according to their frequency—the more frequent the interaction, the more it turns into a relationship. They emphasize the need to manage all interactions, including the difficult or unpleasant ones, since doing so generally enhances genuine communication and aids in resolving conflict and stress. Not least, they see quality relationships as an important aspect of life, something to be cultivated and valued, but at the same time, they recommend adopting the attitude of finding worth in every interaction.

 

The Emotional Intelligence Action Plan

The Emotional Intelligence Action Plan combines the use of a test designed by Bradberry and Greaves, called the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, with 66 strategies aimed at strengthening the neural pathways that connect the emotional and rational parts of the brain. Using the test as a starting point, the process involves focusing on one skill at a time along with three carefully selected strategies related to that skill. Participants are encouraged to work with a mentor or guide adept in the particular skill and to spend three to six months practicing the new habits before repeating the process for the next skill. Through these deliberate changes in thought and behavior, the brain’s “plasticity” allows it to gradually add connections, so that what once was a struggle eventually becomes habitual.

 

Trends in Emotional Intelligence

Having tested, trained, and studied hundreds of thousands of cases all over the world, Bradberry and Greaves have observed several different trends in emotional intelligence:

 

  • Overall US trends—In a five-year US study from 2003 to 2007, Bradberry and Greaves observed a steady upward trend in both average worker EQ and the number of people demonstrating higher scores in the population as a whole. However, in 2008, the trend took a sudden downward turn with the advent of economic difficulties.
  • Gender-related trends—Gender differences have begun to equalize. Previously, they were heavily skewed in favor of women, who demonstrated superior mastery in all skills except for self-awareness (which was equal).
  • EQ and Career—Bradberry and Greaves’s global study of 500,000 people at all levels of business showed middle management to have the highest scores, with CEOs exhibiting the lowest. No matter what the level, though, those who demonstrated higher EQ scores consistently outperformed their peers.
  • EQ and Age—EQ improves with age, which at least in part explains the steady increase in EQ with each previous generation.
  • EQ and Culture—Since some cultures foster emotional and relationship management while others work against it, it stands to reason that certain cultures will have an advantage over others unless similar practices are incorporated.

 

General Observations

  • EQ is trainable and flexible and, therefore, requires regular and consistent cultivation and maintenance.
  • EQ is considered the single most influential leadership quality as well as the top ingredient in determining performance in any job.
  • EQ being a trainable and flexible skill, the process of learning emotional mastery can be accelerated through early training and practice, thus ensuring the availability of adequate leadership at all times.
  • EQ and economic, as well as general well-being, are strongly linked. This is true for both individuals and groups, from organizations to countries.

Butch Connor (The Power of Emotional Self-Management)

On Memorial Day weekend of 2004, surfer Butch Connor had a harrowing encounter with a great white shark, one of his worst nightmares, during which he experienced a rapid sequence of emotions, including terror, anger, curiosity, despair, resignation, and hope. At one point, Butch realized that the shark was responding to his fear and that he needed to get a handle on his emotions if he was to have a fighting chance of survival. As soon as he made this realization, his body, which had been frozen in panic, responded positively, allowing him to both warn the other surfers and paddle with all his might to the shore. In the process, Butch learned something about his mind, body, and emotions: once he realized that his emotions were governing his body counterproductively, he used his reason to reverse the process—and it worked.

Please note that the “identifying information” of the individuals described in the case studies has been changed by the authors to protect the privacy of those involved. Because of this, names have been included in quotes, as in the original text, and job titles are offered as an approximate guide to understanding the context.

 

“Dave T.” and “Maria M.” (Self-awareness)

“Dave T.,” a regional service manager, managed his emotions—not the other way around. Dave’s communications were clear and honest, and his actions were considered rather than rash or self-centered. He did not hide negative reactions, yet he also did not dwell on negative situations, but took a proactive approach.

“Maria M.,” a human resources manager had a similar degree of control over her emotions and reactions. However, control did not preclude honesty, openness, and directness, nor did those qualities preclude kindness.

 

“Tina J.” and “Giles B.” (Lack of self-awareness)

“Tina J.,” a marketing manager, and “Giles B.,” an operations director, both at times lost sight of the effect that they had on other people, usually when they were experiencing strong emotions like excitement or urgency. The result was that they sometimes overwhelmed others or rubbed them the wrong way. The intensity of their personalities, expressed by Tina as urgency, aggressiveness, and sometimes, defensiveness, and by Giles as passion, also resulted in a tendency to miss salient cues relating to other people’s needs and attempts to communicate.

 

“Lane L.” and “Yeshe M.” (Self-management)

The high-scoring self-management case studies balanced complementary positive characteristics while maintaining a sense of cool and calm in the face of stressful situations. Both “Lane L.,” a healthcare administrator, and “Yeshe M.,” a computer programmer, demonstrated such qualities as sensitivity and tact without losing their directness and firmness. Both also set themselves high standards of behavior and adhered to them, even when the surrounding mentality was not encouraging.

 

“Jason L.” and “Mei S.” (Lack of self-management)

In different ways, both “Jason L.,” an IT consultant, and “Mei S.,” a regional sales director, demonstrated a lack of control over their emotions or, to put it another way, a lack of thought about how their actions affected their colleagues or team. Jason was prone to emotional outbursts, and Mei was too communicative toward her staff with regard to negative or frustrating administrative situations. She also allowed her own focus, drive, and competitiveness to get in the way of the effective management of her large team.

 

“Alfonso J.” and “Maya S.” (Social awareness)

The high-scoring social awareness cases were similar in their active engagement with other people, the difference being that “Alfonso J.,” a pharmaceutical sales manager, possessed an outstanding aptitude for reading emotions while “Maya S.,” an organizational development executive proved herself to be especially adept at active listening. Both were respectful and engaged in their dealings with others and consequently inspired such feelings as loyalty, uplift, ease, and inspiration.

 

“Craig C.” and “Rachel M.” (Lack of social awareness)

A lack of social awareness often results in people feeling that they are not being heard. “Craig C.,” an attorney, had a tendency to give too little attention and credence to other people’s ideas and plans. Like the other case study, a project manager called “Rachel M.,” he would get so focused on his own ideas that he could not hear anything else. In both cases, there were complaints that they didn’t slow down sufficiently to listen with both their hearts and minds. Both also had issues communicating their ideas in a way that could maintain interest or gain acceptance. In short, they had difficulty connecting with other people.

 

“Gail C.” and “Allister B.” (Relationship management)

The outstanding qualities of both high-scoring case studies in relationship management were empathy and a skillful and consistent approach to handling personal interactions. Both “Gail C.,” a chief financial officer, and “Allister B.,” a physician, were direct but at the same time sensitive and caring in their dealings, never making the other person feel small or uncomfortable. Though both were also in clear positions of authority, their approach to others, whether staff or patients (in Allister’s case), was always supportive, compassionate, and positive.

 

“Dave M.” and “Natalie T.” (Lack of relationship management)

In contrast to the high scorers, “Dave M.,” a sales manager, and “Natalie T.,” a floor supervisor, both left people feeling demeaned because of their careless behavior. Both exhibited a lack of verbal and emotional control, a tendency to be too open with counterproductive, negative opinions, and a lack of either awareness or caring with regard to the impact of their actions and emotions on others. Both also regularly dismissed or ignored other people’s ideas or complaints. The result was that people often felt demeaned. In Dave’s case, there were also trust issues, biased behavior, and overwhelming or reactive behavior while Natalie was often negative, unsupportive, and unappreciative.

 

Sheila, Assistant Vice-President (EQ and Gender)

Sheila’s intelligence and excellent work quickly put her on the fast track as she moved from her beginnings as a healthcare financial consultant to her position as an assistant vice-president on the way up to the top. But in the eyes of those who observed her, the real reason behind her success was her extraordinary ability to understand and deal with people—her emotional intelligence.

Chapter 1 begins with the harrowing story of Butch Connor’s encounter with a great white shark which, as a surfer, was one of his worst nightmares. Butch’s goal in paddling away from the other surfers was to relax; instead, his meeting with the shark led him to experience a rapid succession of emotions that included terror, anger, curiosity, despair, resignation, and hope. In large part, the intensity of his emotions controlled his actions: panic caused him to freeze; anger motivated him to get away, and a moment of curiosity coupled with resignation (which was broken by a sudden, violent movement) made him want to touch the shark. At times, his reason would break through his fear, and he would be able to subdue his emotions and direct his body to act more productively. In the midst of being frozen with panic, he had realized that it was his fear that the shark was responding to and that he needed to get a handle on his emotions if he was to have a fighting chance of survival. As soon as he made this realization, his body responded positively, allowing him to both warn the other surfers and paddle with all his might until he reached the shore.

Butch’s experience was a lesson in the power of emotion to affect his actions for either better or worse. Bradberry and Greaves explain this through a diagram showing the neural pathway that links the spinal cord with the brain as having to go through the limbic system, or the seat of emotion, before it reaches the prefrontal cortex, the area associated with rational thinking. Greaves and Bradberry describe this link between the reasoning and the feeling parts of the brain as being the physical aspect of emotional intelligence. But Butch learned something else about his mind, body, and emotions: once he realized that his emotions were governing his body counterproductively, he used his reason to reverse the process—and it worked. He had discovered one of the essential elements of emotional intelligence—the ability to manage emotions rather than letting them manage you.

Until recently, EQ has always been eclipsed by IQ, which was thought to be the crucial factor in determining success. Yet studies have revealed that a high IQ accounts for only 20 percent of successes while a high EQ explains an impressive 70 percent. Unlike IQ, though, which Bradberry and Greaves claim to be a fixed learning capacity, EQ can be developed. To this end, the book presents 66 strategies together with an assessment test, both of which are part of a program designed to maximize each individual’s emotional intelligence. The assessment test, which is strongly recommended, acts as summary of current individual skills, a learning guide, a memory aid, and a means of measuring progress in what the authors clearly deem a vital and valuable skill.

Chapter 2 describes the larger picture before delving into the book’s details. The authors particularly note the lack of emotional awareness that plagues two-thirds of the world’s people, who are unable to either identify, comprehend, or manage their own emotions.

The range of specific emotions that we have to choose from is extensive as illustrated by a chart listing 100 different examples. But according to Bradberry and Greaves, they can all be categorized under five main headings: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and shame. These are further divided into high, medium, and low degrees of intensity. In part, the aim of the chart is to show us how many emotions we typically experience in one day.

 

Triggers and Hijackings

The authors define “emotional hijackings” as those instances when our emotions get the better of our thinking and take over our actions, often to our detriment. They cite the example of Butch Connor’s paralysis from the fear induced by the great white shark. “Trigger events,” on the other hand, are events that produce an extended emotional response.

 

The Whole Person

The authors distinguish three main aspects of the person: IQ, EQ, and personality. They define IQ as a fundamental ability to learn that remains the same throughout an individual’s lifetime. Unlike IQ, EQ can be improved through learning and practice, although some people come by it more naturally than others. Furthermore, there is no correlation between IQ and EQ, which are considered entirely separate skills. The same holds true for personality which, like IQ, is deemed unchanging and separate from emotional intelligence. Personality can be used to help improve EQ, but like IQ, it is not essential to the process. All three together give a more complete picture of the whole person.

 

EQ and Professional Success

The impact of emotional intelligence on professional success is significant. In studying EQ next to 33 different work-related skills, the authors found that the skills in question could all be included under the EQ heading and that EQ was the single most reliable factor in determining such qualities as excellence and leadership.

The good news is that a low initial EQ score, even when coupled with low work performance, in no way limits a person’s ability to excel. Those who work at it can even improve to the extent that they can match their successful colleagues, and since EQ is strongly tied to work performance, earning power, and emotional fulfillment, this may certainly be considered a benefit.

The Four Skills

In Chapter 3, Bradberry and Greaves introduce us to the fundamental four skills of emotional intelligence. EQ is divided into two main categories: personal and social competence. These are in turn divided into awareness and management of either oneself or others. Specifically, they are called self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

 

Case Studies

To bring home these ideas in a concrete manner, the chapter includes case studies of real people with real assessment scores and comments by co-workers. Only their names and “other identifying information” (a probable reference to job titles) have been changed, presumably to protect their privacy. Since many people confuse EQ with charisma, the idea behind the case study section is to give us a sense of what emotional intelligence looks like in action.

 

Self-Awareness

As the name suggests, “self-awareness” means being aware of and understanding your own positive and negative emotions and reactions. It entails being willing to honestly work through both your feelings and whatever triggers them. In fact, according to the authors, just thinking about self-awareness helps to improve the skill, and because it is such a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, a well-developed self-awareness improves a person’s abilities with the other three EQ skills, as well. Finally, being aware of oneself makes a vast difference in both overall personal satisfaction and job performance, a good reason why self-awareness should not be relegated to emergency times, but should include every aspect of our lives.

 

Self-awareness case studies 

Self-awareness in action—The outstanding characteristic in “Dave T.’s” case was that he managed his emotions—not the other way around. Dave’s communications were clear and honest, and his actions were considered rather than rash or self-centered. He did not hide negative reactions, yet he also did not dwell on negative situations, but took a proactive approach.

The other high scorer, “Maria M.,” had a similar degree of control over her emotions and reactions. However, as in Dave T.’s case, control did not preclude honesty and openness, nor did those qualities in turn preclude kindness. What was striking in both cases was the balance of necessary and beneficial qualities in relation to both themselves and others.

When self-awareness is missing—In “Tina J.’s” and “Giles B.’s” cases, the situation was a little different. Both at times lost sight of their effect on other people, usually when they were experiencing strong emotions like excitement or urgency. The result was that they sometimes overwhelmed other people or rubbed them the wrong way.

What is noteworthy about all of these situations is that, although the authors define “self-awareness” as an awareness of one’s own emotions and triggers, the key component in every case above is the individual’s awareness (or lack of it) of the effect of his or her actions and words on others.

Self-Management

In brief, self-management refers to the action or restraint that results from self-awareness. It is the ability to steer your life in a positive direction, whether that means managing stressful situations or dealing effectively with temporary uncertainty. An important characteristic of self-management is the ability to defer momentary needs or desires in favor of a larger goal. Those who can do this are more likely to achieve their goals while at the same time maintaining their emotional stability.

Self-management case studies

Self-management in action—The high-scoring self-management case studies are like the self-awareness ones in that they balance complementary positive characteristics while maintaining a sense of cool and calm in the face of stressful situations. Both “Lane L.” and “Yeshe M.” demonstrated such qualities as sensitivity and tact without losing their directness and firmness. Both also set themselves high standards of behavior and adhered to them, even when the surrounding mentality was not encouraging.

When self-management is missing—In different ways, both “Jason L.” and “Mei S.” demonstrated a lack of control over their emotions or, to put it another way, a lack of thought about how their actions affected their colleagues or team. Jason was prone to emotional outbursts, and Mei was too communicative toward her staff with regard to negative or frustrating administrative situations, in addition to allowing her own focus, drive, and competitiveness to get in the way of the effective management of her large team.

Noteworthy here is that the high scorers set themselves high standards of behavior while the lower scorers neglected to think as carefully about the importance and impact of their actions and words.

Social Awareness

Like self-awareness, social awareness is what the authors call a “foundational skill,” a skill that provides the basis for developing other abilities. Specifically, it is the awareness or accurate perception and understanding of other people’s thoughts and emotions. Social awareness means taking enough time away from your own internal activity to truly grasp the inner life of another person without allowing your own preconceptions to interfere.

 

Social awareness case studies

Social awareness in action—The high-scoring social awareness cases were similar to each other in their active engagement with other people, the difference being that “Alfonso J.’s” outstanding aptitude was to read emotions while “Maya S.” proved herself to be especially adept at active listening. Both were respectful and engaged in their dealings with others and consequently inspired such feelings as loyalty, uplift, ease, and inspiration.

When social awareness is missing—Not surprisingly, the lack of social awareness often manifests itself as people feeling that they are not being heard. “Craig C.’s” issue was a tendency to give too little attention and credence to other people’s ideas and plans. Like the other case study, “Rachel M.,” he would get so focused on his own ideas that he could not hear anything else. In both cases, there were complaints that they did not slow down sufficiently to listen both with their hearts and minds. Both also had issues communicating their ideas in a way that could maintain interest or gain acceptance. In short, they had difficulty connecting with other people.

Relationship Management

Relationship management can be viewed as the culmination all four skills because it utilizes the previous three to effectively manage interactions and relationships. Bradberry and Greaves differentiate between “relationships” and “interactions” according to their frequency—the more frequent the interaction, the more it turns into a relationship. They emphasize the need to manage all interactions, including the difficult or unpleasant ones, since doing so generally enhances genuine communication and aids in resolving conflict and stress. Not least, they see quality relationships as an important aspect of life, something to be cultivated and valued, but at the same time, they recommend adopting the attitude of finding worth in every interaction.

Relationship management case studies

Relationship management in action—The outstanding qualities of the high-scoring case studies in relationship management are empathy and a skillful and consistent approach to handling personal interactions. Both “Gail C.” and “Allister B.” were direct but at the same time sensitive and caring in their dealings, never making the other person feel small or uncomfortable. Though both were also in clear positions of authority, their approach to others, whether staff or patients (in Allister’s case), was always supportive, compassionate, and positive. The reactions from others in both cases were that people felt built up, encouraged, and deeply appreciative.

When relationship management is missing—By contrast, the low scorers in relationship management, “Dave M.” and “Natalie T.,” both left people feeling demeaned because of their careless behavior. Both exhibited a lack of verbal and emotional control, a tendency to be too open with counterproductive, negative opinions, and a lack of either awareness or caring with regard to the impact of their actions and emotions on others. Both also regularly dismissed or ignored other people’s ideas or complaints. The result was that people often felt demeaned. In Dave’s case, there were also trust issues, biased behavior, and overwhelming or reactive behavior while Natalie was often negative, unsupportive, and unappreciative.

Chapter 4 begins by explaining the value of developing your EQ. The authors liken the neural pathways connecting the emotional and rational parts of the brain to a road that benefits from increased traffic. Developing this connection—or growing the road—comes from thinking about and subsequently acting on your emotions. Through deliberate changes in thought and behavior, the brain’s “plasticity” allows it to gradually add connections, so that what once was a struggle eventually becomes habitual.

 

The Emotional Intelligence Action Plan

The book’s Emotional Intelligence Action Plan aims to help people develop this connection.

 

  1. The plan begins with taking the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal test, which is available online and requires a passcode (you can find this at the end of the book in an attached envelope). After this, the participant records his or her scores (on page 56 of the book, under My Journey Begins) under the five categories of general emotional intelligence and the four fundamental skills discussed in Chapter 3.
  2. Following that, you (or the person in question) are asked to choose one skill at a time to work on since this more concentrated method has been found to be most effective as well as beneficial for learning future EQ skills.
  3. Next, you choose and record three strategies related to the selected skill. In both numbers 2 and 3, selections can be made based on individually tailored recommendations generated in response to appraisal test results, or they can be chosen more freely (within the specific category).
  4. Select a mentor who is adept at this skill to help guide you and provide feedback as you develop your new ability. This includes meeting regularly as well as writing his or her name in your plan.
  5. Mastering the new skill requires a lot of patience and practice, so rehearse your chosen strategies often and expect to wait a few months (from three to six) before seeing permanent change. Also, do not expect perfection; aim instead for success. The authors warn that perfect mastery means that you are not being challenged enough.
  6. When you are satisfied with your progress, take the appraisal test again, and then perform the second part of the action plan. This involves listing the new scores next to the old and computing the point differences (+ or -) between them.

 

Once all of this has been completed, a new skill is chosen, along with three relevant strategies, and the process begins again.

In this chapter, we learn the fifteen strategies for self-awareness, which the authors define as an in-depth knowledge of our authentic self. Knowing our genuine essence is not something that is achieved quickly or all at once; rather, it is an ongoing process that is accomplished in layers and that requires engaging honestly with both the positive and the negative. Emotions are messages, so not facing them when they emerge is ultimately not only counterproductive but potentially destructive. As difficult as it may be to face our real feelings, doing so is a sign of progress in both self-knowledge as well as the strength of mind and character required to embark on such a journey.

The Fifteen Strategies for Self-Awareness

The rest of the chapter is devoted to outlining the fifteen unassuming yet insightful strategies designed to enhance growth in self-awareness.

  1. Stop labeling your emotions as good or bad. Judging your emotions prevents you from fully understanding the message they are trying to convey and makes it more difficult to process them. By not suppressing or judging them, you allow the process to unfold and conclude more rapidly. Once your feelings have had a chance to truly speak, they have done their job and can disappear.
  2. Be aware of your emotions’ ongoing impact on others. Bradberry and Greaves call this observing “the ripple effect.” People may think that their sudden explosions or outpourings only affect their immediate target, but, in fact, they can create a degree of wariness in those observing (or, presumably, hearing about) the action. The result is a cramping of the feeling of trust and freedom that is necessary for producing the best possible results.

The authors’ recommendation is to be attentive to the immediate effects of your emotions on others and to use that as a measure of their ultimate, wider influence. They also recommend thinking carefully about your emotional behavior and questioning others about its effects.

  1. Allow yourself to experience your discomfort. The authors call this “leaning into your discomfort” so that you genuinely experience it instead of avoiding it. This strategy is similar to the first in that it encourages you to be with the emotion, allowing it to speak rather than sweeping it under the rug. Preventing the emotional experience from fully surfacing merely postpones the event and results in a stunted personal development.
  2. Experience your feelings on a physical level. To get comfortable with this, Bradberry and Greaves recommend closing your eyes and taking note of your current physiological condition—how fast your heart is beating, which parts of your body are tense, the quality of your breathing, and so on. Once you have done this, think of a positive and a negative experience from your past. As you think of each event separately, notice what types of emotional and physical reactions you are having. Doing this will enable you to recognize the physical symptoms more readily when they occur in your life.
  3. Know your triggers. This means being aware of which specific people and things set you off. Pinpointing the exact source of your annoyance reduces the chances of being caught off guard, which gives you more control over the situation.

The next recommended step is to delve more deeply into the reasons behind your annoyance. Does the situation remind you of someone or something in your past? Or does it mask some hidden tendency in yourself? Using this strategy does not require overcoming your triggers: the important thing for the moment is to simply become of aware of them and to help with this, the authors recommend keeping a list.

  1. “Watch yourself like a hawk.” This expression usually means to “watch yourself carefully.” The authors, however, take the analogy one step further. Their point is that, because a hawk can fly, it has an overview, giving it a wider vista and, therefore, greater objectivity and predictive ability.

What this means in practice is taking the time to notice your thoughts and emotions before acting on them and then to imagine the larger view from “above.” The authors give the example of a parent waiting for his/her teenage son to come home after already breaking his curfew by two hours. Taking a step back from the immediate feelings of anger and frustration allow the parent to see that venting these emotions will not change anything, but being aware of them and their reasons allows the parent to give a more coherent explanation for whatever measures he/she decides to enforce.

  1. Keep a journal. Keeping a journal of your feelings has elements of some of the other strategies, such as taking a step back to gain more objectivity and watching carefully for trigger events. Writing down your feelings, reactions, and accompanying physical sensations on a daily basis should function as a memory aid, provide you with a reference, and enable you to spot patterns within a month.
  2. Don’t let a bad mood fool you. There are times when a foul mood grips our minds and emotions, coloring our whole world. At these times, we need to be particularly aware so that our perceptions, which after all are only temporary, don’t lead us to make poor decisions. Admitting and thinking about our feelings can help things to pass more quickly, although the authors warn us to not spend too much time reflecting on the negative.
  3. Don’t let a good mood deceive you, either. Unfortunately, the high of a good mood is equally capable of leading to poor decision-making as the low of a particularly bad mood. The authors use the common phenomenon of impulsive overspending at a sale as a typical example, the point being that we need to guard against excessive impulsiveness under all conditions in order to avoid remorse.
  4. Question and analyze your actions and emotions. This means digging deep down to the source and discovering the origins of your actions and feelings, especially if they don’t match your regular behavior. This thought process alone of trying to remember who or what first prompted the reactions that now seem to govern you is a key to regaining self-control.
  5. Connect with your values. The authors maintain that the often hectic pace of our lives keeps us looking outward and that this outward focus makes it easy to lose sight of our deeper ideals, a state that can sometimes lead to regrettable actions. To counteract this, the authors recommend keeping a list on a regular basis (anywhere from daily to monthly). The list should have two columns, one for values and beliefs and the other for any actions taken that run contrary to them. The resulting self-awareness will help us to check in with ourselves before we act.
  6. “Check yourself.” So far, the emphasis has been on connecting with our internal states and thoughts, but in this particular strategy, the authors encourage us to check our external condition since this can function as a manifestation of our internal mood. Our facial expressions as well as how we dress, stand, or wear our hair can indicate a lot about our state of mind; or they can project a “default” condition that has become habitual. The impression we give, whether of trying too hard or not trying at all, can in large part create the day’s mood, so the recommendation is to make sure that it matches the reality before it leaves an unwanted mark on our experience.
  7. Notice your feelings in music, books, movies, and other art forms. Not everyone has an easy time connecting with or expressing their inner world. If that describes you, observing your reactions to different art forms can provide a clue to your own emotions and mood. When you find yourself responding to some aspect of a book or movie, a piece of music or a work of art, allow yourself to explore the experience further: it may be communicating information about your own deeper thoughts and feelings.
  8. Ask for feedback. Our self-perception is at best highly subjective, so having the courage and openness to ask for feedback from others can help lead us to a more objective view. This involves gathering a number of different perspectives and then looking for common threads. When requesting feedback, be sure to ask for specific examples.

Learn your personal stress signals. Symptoms of too much stress can be either physical, emotional, or mental, but in this fast-paced world, they can be easy to miss or ignore when still in their subtle, preliminary stages. The key to preventing a worse situation is to familiarize yourself with your own symptoms—whether a headache, an upset stomach, or various emotional or mental cues—and then heed their advice and take some time for yourself, for what the authors call “[recharging] your emotional battery.”

Self-management is the next step after self-awareness. It is the quality that allows you to manage your emotions rather than the other way around. When self-management is in place, you have the ability to balance your own needs and emotions with the needs and emotions of those around you while still achieving your goals.

The self-management strategies listed in Chapter 6 are straightforward but effective, having been carefully tested and selected to represent different facets of the skill. As the authors say, practicing them daily won’t turn your life into a fairy tale, and there will still be trigger moments, but on the whole, you will experience much more control over your life.

The Seventeen Strategies for Self-Management

As in Chapter 5, the remainder of this chapter provides a list of relevant strategies designed to improve the skill in question.

  1. Breathe. The authors call this section “Breathe Right,” since many people’s breathing is too shallow to fully meet their needs. The problem is that they don’t realize it, having become accustomed to an insufficient intake of air. According to Bradberry and Greaves, the brain requires 20 percent of our air intake, which it then parcels out first to the vital functions and then to the complex functions, such as remaining calm and alert—an obviously crucial self-management skill.

Adequate breathing means allowing the abdomen to expand on the inbreath, unlike the high chest breathing that is apparently common among many. The strategy, therefore, involves placing one hand on the sternum (the large chest bone) and the other on the diaphragm (stomach area) or lower abdomen (the authors use the word “stomach”). If your abdominal area is expanding more than your chest, then you are breathing correctly.

As simple as this strategy is, it is extremely effective as a calming technique that shifts the focus toward a more rational, positive outlook, making it an excellent self-management tool.

  1. Write an “Emotions vs. Reasons List.” This strategy is recommended when the emotional and rational parts of your brain are in conflict. Making an Emotions vs. Reason List involves listing your emotional reasoning in one column and your rational thoughts in another. Once you have completed this, examine the two columns to see how each type of thinking might be interfering with the other. Doing this makes it easier to sort things out and decide which type of decision is more appropriate for the particular situation.
  2. Make an open commitment to your goals. The authors call this strategy “[Making] Your Goals Public.” Making a “public” commitment, even if only with one person (the authors give the example of meeting a running partner every morning), functions as added motivation for achieving your objectives by making others aware of both your goals and your progress. In addition, they recommend that you ask the person or people in question to track your progress and hold you responsible for it, with the added option of meting out a penalty or reward.
  3. Count to ten. The simple strategy of counting to ten gives the emotional part of your brain time to chill down while the rational part kicks in. The authors recommend taking a deep breath and then silently counting a single number on each exhalation. Even if you don’t make it all the way to ten, you will have gained some valuable time to rethink your approach before doing or saying something that you regret or that just creates more problems in the long (or short) run. At times, you will need a cover strategy so that what you’re actually doing is not obvious. The authors give the example of one person who always brought a drink to meetings and took a sip when he needed extra time.
  4. Give the dust time to settle. When we are upset or confused, it’s easy to want to rush our decision-making before allowing things to settle and become clear. The authors call this strategy “Sleep On It,” and they quote Tolstoy’s War and Peace as mentioning the ability of time and patience to bring clarity and healing. So rather than allowing your confusion and upset to rule your thoughts and direct your steps, simply choose to wait for things to settle. As the authors point out, something may even happen during that time to make the situation clearer.
  5. Consult with someone who is adept at self-management. This strategy involves finding someone who is a talented self-manager, taking him or her out to lunch, and learning the secrets of his/her success, especially in relation to the issues that are most problematic for you. Once you have had a chance to try out a few of the recommended techniques, find out if you can set up another meeting (the authors don’t say why, but presumably it’s to review your progress and augment your understanding).

If you’re uncertain as to who might be a good self-manager, ask the person you have in mind to take the assessment test recommended in the book (the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal test). Also, be sure to have him or her review the chapter on self-management before your first meeting.

  1. Put on a happy face. According to the authors, French university researchers have found that the act of using your smile muscles actually fools the brain into thinking that you’re happy. The students in the research study who held a pencil between their teeth while reading the newspaper comics had a more enjoyable time than those who held a pencil between their lips. Reading a funny book or watching a funny show can also be helpful when a happy face is needed, although the authors don’t negate the validity of a difficult mood, since it carries with it an indispensable message.
  2. Set aside problem-solving time. This does not need to be a lot of time. Fifteen minutes a day is sufficient, but it should be dedicated solely to clearing your head of the many thoughts and feelings that sometimes clutter our days. That means eliminating all distractions to just think. In the authors’ opinion, well-planned decisions are usually more successful than those made while you’re rushed, harried, or overly emotional.
  3. Manage your self-talk. “Self-talk” refers to the flow of inner comments that we make to ourselves throughout the day, for better or worse. This becomes more relevant when we recognize the power of our thoughts to influence how we feel both emotionally and physically. It makes sense, therefore, to learn to regulate our thoughts so that they direct our emotions and lives in the most positive way possible. This means becoming conscious of negative self-talk and deliberately making a different, more positive choice.

The authors give three examples of frequent instances of negative self-talk, along with offering some more positive options:

  • “I always …” or “I never …”—Statements like this are obvious exaggerations that attempt to lock you into a negative mode. By changing your statement to “sometimes” or “this time,” you recognize that each situation is different, which enables you to examine it from a fresh, rational perspective.
  • Stick to the facts. Calling yourself “an idiot” when you simply made a mistake is neither accurate nor productive. Focusing on facts instead of judgments will help you to be more objective and proactive.
  • Take responsibility for yourself while avoiding blame. Constantly blaming either yourself or others is a mind game that leads nowhere. Instead, take responsibility for your own actions, and recognize that others need to be responsible for theirs, as well.
  1. Visualize success. Our brains have a hard time distinguishing between what we see with our eyes versus what we see with our minds. This makes visualization a particularly powerful tool that can significantly enhance our chances at success and accelerate the development of the neural pathways that solidify a new habit.

One of the best times to practice this is before bedtime. Make sure that your environment is free from distractions. Then first visualize the negative scene or problem as realistically as possible so that it evokes the feelings that are causing you discomfort. Now change your behavior and emotions to positive ones. Practice this every night as a way of solving difficult issues that arise.

  1. Improve your sleep habits. Not enough quality sleep robs you of the energy that allows you to remain alert, calm, and flexible, and this, in turn, makes it difficult to manage your emotions. To help your brain access the quality sleep that it needs to recharge adequately, be sure to incorporate the following beneficial habits:
  • Allow for twenty minutes of outdoor morning sunlight every day—needed for resetting your internal clock.
  • Since computer light mimics sunlight, allow two hours before bedtime away from the computer.
  • Use your bed for sleeping only. This conditions your body to respond appropriately at bedtime.
  • Avoid or minimize caffeine, and drink it only in the morning. The effects of caffeine decrease by half every six hours, which means that you will still be processing one quarter of your morning intake twelve hours later.
  1. Focus on possibilities, not limitations. There are times when difficult or negative situational factors are beyond our personal control. However, how we choose to approach the situation is never beyond our control. Also, in most circumstances, there are factors that we can and should control, and it’s these that we need to focus on and take responsibility for.
  2. Keep your body and emotions synchronized. This means keeping your body language and emotions in harmony with each other. But the section also refers to managing both your body and your emotions with your thoughts. The authors give the example of Chelsea “Sully” Sullenberger, the pilot who safely crash-landed a plane in the Hudson River by subduing his fear, maintaining his physical and emotional equanimity, and focusing on what he needed to do—to land everyone safely. His ability to control himself ensured his success.
  3. Consult with someone who has an objective viewpoint. When faced with a difficult decision, we can too easily find ourselves going around in the same circles. A fresh, uninvolved perspective can be helpful in such cases. The person you choose should have as little investment in the situation as possible; otherwise, you risk receiving an opinion that is either biased or too much like your own. To avoid this, the authors recommend potentially listening to the opinion of a devil’s advocate, even when this might not be what you want to hear.
  4. Learn something valuable from everyone you meet. How we approach people can make a monumental difference in our experience. Taking the offensive or defensive mode prevents us from learning new things and significantly adds to our stress level. Choosing instead to see everyone as having something valuable to offer allows us to potentially transform every encounter into something beneficial. Even negative situations can hold vital lessons for us when viewed from a positive perspective. At a minimum, we will gain a greater measure of calm, control, and flexibility that can serve us well in any situation.
  5. Schedule mental recharge time. Because of the positive chemicals it releases into the brain, the authors believe vigorous physical exercise to be the best way to mentally recharge, but gentler exercise such as yoga, gardening, massage, walking in the park, and other relaxing activities are also recommended, both for the body and the mind. Since scheduling recharge time is an issue for many people, Bradberry and Greaves suggest inserting it at the beginning of the week before life’s inevitable events and interruptions squeeze it out. More important, though, is to view it as an essential maintenance task—a regular priority rather than an occasional activity to be included as time permits.

Expect change. Learning to expect change as inevitable and imminent means that we are more likely to prepare for it instead being caught off guard. Even the things in our lives that seem most stable are apt to change, so being mentally prepared can help mitigate some of the negative reactions that unwanted or unexpected changes sometimes bring. The authors recommend dedicating a little time each week to making a list of possible fundamental changes, their relevant warning signs, and any actions needed to prepare for or respond to them. Whether the changes occur or not, the authors see the exercise as a valuable tool for learning adaptability through mental readiness.

Social awareness is the ability to pick up on cues from other people through such aspects as body language, facial expression, and tone of voice. It is the ability to key into people’s emotions, and it has been found to be remarkably consistent across different cultures. To do this effectively requires being both present and clear as well as having an outwardly directed focus that enables you to imagine another person’s or group’s feelings.

The Seventeen Strategies for Social Awareness

The strategies listed below are designed to aid in removing any blocks to social awareness by helping you to recognize the pivotal signals:

  1. Use people’s names when greeting them. Bradberry and Greaves see our names as an essential part of our identities, which makes greeting someone by name as powerful a technique as it is straightforward. Focusing on remembering a person’s name and then using it in conversation or greeting has the ability to both heighten your social attentiveness and make the person feel special.

Don’t be discouraged if you have difficulty remembering names. Practice makes perfect. Also, if the name is unclear to you, having the person spell it for you will make it that much easier to recall.

  1. Observe people’s body language. This strategy stresses body language as a clue to a person’s real thoughts and feelings and then reduces body language observation to a miniature science. Readers are instructed to notice small signs and shifts in a person’s eyes, smile, and overall body posture and movement. For example, are the person’s movements relaxed or nervous, slouched or upright? To prove their point, the authors cite the superior ability of professional poker players to analyze these small hints since their success or failure is after all the key to their livelihood.
  2. Pay careful attention to timing. The authors take this one step further, calling this strategy “Make Timing Everything.” What they are referring to is the natural sensitivity that appraises a situation before making a move. Examples include knowing not to approach someone who is in a lousy mood or not asking a business question when someone is obviously upset over a personal issue. The authors are not suggesting manipulation but the human sensitivity that springs from empathy.

To practice this strategy, the authors recommend timing whatever question you plan ask by focusing on the other person’s state rather than on your own. With a little sensitivity and compassion, even imperfectly timed questions can sometimes be introduced after first acknowledging and demonstrating concern for the other person’s current feelings and needs.

  1. Prepare a “back-pocket question.” This is a question that you pull out of your back pocket (figuratively, of course) in those awkward moments when the conversation threatens to lapse into an uncomfortable silence. The question should be structured to invite more than a one- or two-word response. The authors recommend a “What do you think of …” format that avoids, however, broaching such subjects as politics or religion.

The purpose of these questions is to bring some life to the conversation, so Bradberry and Greaves’s counsel is to not worry if the question seems like a sudden change of subject. However, there will be times when, in spite of your efforts, you simply won’t have much luck, and your best option will be to find a way to graciously widen the conversational circle or excuse yourself.

  1. Refrain from taking notes in meetings. According to the authors, note-taking, like other types of multitasking, prevents us from paying careful attention to the events taking place in front of us. While taking notes in meetings may be useful in some ways, it may also distract our attention from small clues that provide the key to a fuller understanding of the situation. To pick up on these cues, we need to observe the other people in the room with greater awareness and attention. The strategy, therefore, recommends refraining from note-taking and instead observing people’s expressions and making eye contact with each speaker. Your increased focus on your surroundings should help you to capture nuances that you might otherwise miss when your attention is buried in your notes.
  2. Plan ahead for social events. Social events can be just as nerve-racking or distracting as business events, so doing a bit of planning can relieve your mind and ease the tension. Bradberry and Greaves recommend taking an index card with a few notes that will serve as reminders of salient points that you want to remember to do or say while there. Using this basic device will allow you to accomplish your goals without worrying about having to remember or stressing because you forgot. As a result, you can be more present and truly enjoy yourself.
  3. Clear out the inner clutter. Social awareness requires clarity, and clarity requires doing away with the incessant mental chatter that can clog our ability to receive information. We either altogether block the outside world, or we color the information we receive with our own preconceptions, often interrupting the other person before giving him or her a chance to finish. Some simple remedies for counteracting these tendencies are: 1. not interrupting; 2. stopping any planned response before it comes out; and 3. focusing our attention on the person’s expressions and on the conversation. As we shift the attention from our own ideas to learning from others, we will hone our listening skills and quiet our minds.
  4. Be in the present. Being in the present moment, without the distraction of thoughts about the past or the future, enables us to fully experience life. The authors affirm that contemplating the past and mapping out the future are essential activities, but they have their place and should not interfere with our experience of the present. The exercise, therefore, consists in being truly present in each situation and not allowing our minds to wander elsewhere.
  5. Tour your workplace. The purpose of this exercise is to counteract the tendency to focus on the destination rather than on the journey of life. The “destination” need not be large; it can refer to the smaller daily and hourly goals and schedules that we set for ourselves: the next appointment, the next task, and so on. To switch the focus from destination to journey, the authors recommend two 15-minute tours a week for one month to observe different things that often escape our notice. Dedicate the first tour to taking in small details and the second to moods. Avoid judging what you see while touring. Instead, just observe.
  6. Learn about EQ from movies. Movies are a terrific way to hone your EQ skills since they are largely about emotional interactions—both positive and negative. Beyond that, you have the advantage of not being directly involved with the characters, which makes it easier to be objective. To hone your skills, this strategy recommends watching two movies in the coming month. Pay specific attention to how body language relates to emotion, and observe the characters’ methods of resolving their conflicts. The authors also recommend rewinding after you have a better understanding of the situation so that you can look for any hints you might have missed the first time.
  7. Believe it or not, this takes practice, and according to the authors, it is a dying art. “Listening” also means more than just taking in the words a person is using: it also requires observing the tone, undertone, subtext, speed, and volume that are being used. The practice strategy is, therefore, simply a matter of listening with 100 percent focus. That means no distractions or multitasking and no interruptions. Doing this should increase your awareness of the subtle non-verbal messages that often accompany someone’s words.
  8. People-watch. For this strategy, the authors recommend going to a coffee shop to watch people’s movements and interactions from a distance. Like watching movies, doing this enables you to observe without being directly involved so that you can take your time to notice things that you might otherwise be too distracted to pick up on.
  9. Know and understand the cultural rules. This strategy has become especially relevant in our increasingly multicultural world. Different cultures (and even subcultures) have different rules and expectations. As the authors point out, this includes not only ethnic or national culture but also business and family cultural values and behaviors. Understanding these rules means observing more carefully than usual as well as asking questions to determine other people’s cultural preferences and habits and how they would like to be treated.
  10. Test the accuracy of your observations by asking questions. Gaining social awareness sometimes means testing your perceptions for accuracy. Asking questions is the easiest way to do this. If people’s body language seems out of sync with their statements about how they are doing, you can verify this by asking a sensitively worded question about the discrepancy. Similarly, if someone drops hints without directly saying what he or she is thinking, you can confirm your observations with a simple question.
  11. See things as they do. The authors call this “[stepping] into their shoes.” It is something that actors do naturally, often reporting greater appreciation of even a difficult character’s personality. Learning to do this can help to prevent regrets later on, and it’s as easy as asking yourself what you would do or say if you were the person in question. To figure this out, consider the person’s history in similar situations, being careful to resist the temptation to let any preconceived behavioral notions interfere. Assuming you’re comfortable enough with the person, you can then choose an appropriate time to verify your perceptions by asking questions.
  12. Use a 360-survey to get the big picture about yourself. This means consulting not just those who like you, but those who have issues with you, as well. Their opinions might not be what you want to hear, but they may alert you to potential problems—views that people hold of you that might interfere with the progress of your career. The best way to do this is through a 360-degree survey (an anonymous survey administered to everyone in your immediate working environment) on the four basic EQ skills. According to the authors, others’ viewpoints of us are usually more accurate than our own and can, therefore, give us valuable information about ourselves.
  13. Practice sensing the mood of an entire room. Rooms usually develop a definite feel based on the collective thoughts, actions, and emotions of the people in them. The number of people and their general purpose for being there can easily influence its overall mood. The authors use the comparison of a convention of networking entrepreneurs versus a roomful of potential jurors awaiting a decision about whether they have been selected for duty, or you might compare Grand Central Station to a wake at a funeral home for a more extreme difference in energies.

The authors recommend two ways to go about practicing this skill, which they consider the culmination of social awareness skills. The first is to use your gut instincts coupled with your observation of people’s movements, groupings, and overall energy. The second is to accompany someone with talent and experience in this skill. At first, you can compare notes about your observations, eventually trying it on your own.

Relationship management represents the final development in learning emotional intelligence skills since it combines and adds to the previous three. As the authors point out, managing relationships is often easy at first, but doing so long-term requires work, patience, and skill, no matter how good the basis of the relationship.

 

The Seventeen Strategies for Managing Relationships

The following seventeen strategies focus on developing the skills needed in managing relationships so that you can fully enjoy this rewarding, though often challenging, aspect of life:

 

  1. Maintain an open and curious attitude in relation to others. No matter how many or few people we work or socialize with, relationships are a part of life that few of us can escape. Learning how to navigate them effectively is, therefore, a useful skill for most of us. To this end, the authors recommend openness and curiosity as two essential qualities for cultivating good relationships. They define “openness” as the willingness to impart information about yourself to others, one of the benefits being that you are less likely to be misunderstood. The complement to this is curiosity, or interest in other people’s thoughts and stories. Like openness, curiosity helps to prevent misunderstanding and ensure that everyone’s needs are met. Be sure, however, to use sensitivity when asking and timing your questions. An interested, open-minded approach will get you much further than a judgmental one that implies criticism of the person’s choices. Aside from helping you to learn about the person, a friendly curiosity makes others feel appreciated. Regardless of the nature and status of your current relationships, the authors recommend practicing these two qualities several minutes a day with different people.
  2. Build on your natural style of communicating. We all have ways of communicating that are specific to our own style, though this may vary with the situation. Qualities may range from shy to gregarious, exuberant to ornery, direct to evasive, entertaining to dull, and so on.

Practicing this strategy involves first determining your overall natural style, as observed by you and described by friends, family, and co-workers. Write this at the top of the page (you can choose any adjective you like). Then divide the page into two columns, noting the positive elements of your style on the left side and the negatives on the right (you should evaluate these according to the reactions you have experienced from others). The final step is to honestly decide how to build on the good while eradicating or downplaying the negative elements.

  1. Don’t give mixed signals. This translates into making sure that your body language, expressions, and words match; otherwise, your mixed signals will produce confusion. There are times, however, when allowing your emotions to surface unimpeded is counterproductive, and in those cases, your self-management skills should enable you to govern yourself until you can find a more appropriate moment to broach the subject and express your feelings. Whatever your timing, be sure to choose it so as to produce the best outcome. If you find this impossible to do, then explain the reason or context for the emotion. To practice this strategy, the authors recommend a month of close self-observation, coupled with a concerted effort to maintain synchrony between the different facets of your verbal and physical expression.
  2. Don’t forget the power of courtesy. Courtesy is a social skill that seems to have gone by the wayside in our fast-paced society. Bradberry and Greaves point out that terms that once were an essential aspect of cultural interaction, such as “please,” “thank you,” and “I’m sorry,” have all, but disappeared from our vocabulary. Yet the simple insertion of one of these at the right moment can have a significant impact on a person’s sense of well-being. The strategy, therefore, emphasizes reintroducing habitual good manners into our daily lives, thereby potentially lifting others’ spirits as well as our own.
  3. Learn and grow from feedback. Feedback, even if we don’t agree with it, is intended to help us improve; so learning to accept it graciously and evaluate it as objectively as possible is a useful skill to develop. The first step—the receiving step—involves listening carefully, clearing up any questions, and thanking the source of the feedback for at least taking the time to give it. The second step involves absorbing and understanding the message. Resist creating an action plan under pressure; instead, take your time to truly understand. The authors recommend the Emotion vs. Reason list for this step. The third step is to decide what to do. Acting on the feedback gives the other person confidence that he or she has been heard, which in turn benefits the relationship.
  4. Build trust. Trust is one of the most critical aspects of a relationship, and it often presupposes the presence of a certain amount of it to create more. Trust also takes time to build: you don’t need to bare all in one sitting. You do need, however, to be aware of your own requirements, in addition to tuning into and, if necessary, asking the other person about his or hers. Some qualities to keep in mind for building and maintaining trust are openness, sharing, consistency, and dependability.
  5. Maintain an “open-door” policy. This means allowing for unscheduled meetings with any person at any level without spreading yourself thin. How this works in practice varies with each individual and requires self-management, awareness of others, and a consistent approach that is clearly communicated. Its value is that it imparts a sense of respect and worth and encourages mutual learning.
  6. Manage your anger proactively. Used wisely at the right time, in the right situation, and for the right reasons, anger can actually be a constructive emotion. Overusing or misusing it can, however, lead to ineffectiveness, like the boy who cried “Wolf!” being ignored by the villagers, who finally got fed up with his games. Anger management is generally not required on a daily basis, so mastering it as a skill may take a little more time and planning when it is needed. Remember: the deciding factor in using this skill should be its potential benefit to the relationship.
  7. Don’t run from unavoidable situations. Sometimes we have no choice, but to deal with someone we would rather avoid. In such cases, we need to use our self- and social awareness skills to make the most of the situation, keeping in mind the common goal as the important element in the relationship. In a close working situation, the starting point is to learn about the person’s preferences and experience relative to the job. Explaining your own work preferences (not your feelings about the person) as a next move will help you devise a mutual plan about how to work together. Observe the other person during this process to determine any uncomfortable emotions on his or her part, since this sort of information can be instructive when trying to maneuver a difficult relationship. Finally, acknowledge your mutual achievement.
  8. Acknowledge other people’s emotions. This means recognizing the validity of other people’s feelings, even if you don’t agree with them or they make you uncomfortable. In the latter case, the authors recommend “leaning” into your discomfort. Dismissing, exaggerating, or trivializing another’s emotions does not help to make the person feel better while recognizing them with even a small gesture shows caring. The simple act of listening and summarizing the person’s statements can go a long way toward improving the situation.
  9. Complement feelings or situations in close interactions. The word “complement” as used here by the authors does not refer to mirroring whatever situation or set of emotions you find yourself dealing with; rather, it means adjusting yourself to the mood or circumstances in a way that is helpful toward solving the issue at hand. To practice this, the authors recommend first thinking back on a situation where someone did or did not complement an obvious mood of yours. How did his or her actions influence the situation and your mood? Once you have reviewed the situation, make a note to complement those close to you—whether friends, family, or co-workers—in a way that is sensitive and helpful.
  10. Show that you care. When you feel gratitude or appreciation, or if something is important to you, show it. As the authors point out, there is a lot of excellent work going on around us all the time, so take a moment to show your genuine appreciation. Even small gestures, when they come from the heart, can lift someone’s spirits and improve morale, which in turn inspires more good work and a stronger relationship.
  11. Explain your decisions. Explaining your decisions goes a long way toward helping others to understand and accept them. Not knowing why something is happening or being insufficiently informed can make people uneasy while keeping an open line of communication shows caring, support, and respect. To practice this, look over the decisions you will need to make in the next three months; then list the people they will impact and in what ways. This will give you added insight into others’ viewpoints so that you can tailor your explanations of how and why the decisions are being made.
  12. Give honest, constructive feedback. Giving genuinely constructive feedback involves the use of all four EQ skills and should be viewed as a way of building the relationship. The process breaks down as follows:
  • Self-awareness—Determine whether or not you feel comfortable giving the feedback along with the reasons for your feelings.
  • Self-management—Decide how to overcome or deal with any issues discovered during your self-evaluation process.
  • Social awareness—For feedback to be as constructive as possible, it needs to include your opinion as well as problem-solving suggestions, and it needs to be tailored to the individual. As the examples in the book point out, someone who is direct will require a different approach from someone who is sensitive.
  • Relationship management—Once you have gone over the feedback with the person take some time to hear his or her viewpoint. Finally, be sure to thank the person for being open to reviewing your recommendations.
  1. Match intention with impact. Sometimes our intentions just don’t translate into the impact that we wanted to produce. We say the wrong thing at the wrong time, even though the intention was positive. The first step toward correcting this situation is to analyze it in detail: write down what you intended, what you did, and the effect it had. Then note what you missed at the time and what you have learned since then, finishing with how you would change your behavior to bring it in line with your intended result.
  2. Offer a way of fixing things if the conversation starts to break down. The authors call this a “fix-it statement,” which can be anything from empathizing with the person’s emotions to offering a practical way of repairing the damage, whether perceived or actual. They give the example of airline agents, who typically have a lot of “fix-it” conversations to keep their customers happy. Remember when dealing with this type of situation that what went wrong and why it’s less valuable than finding a solution to the problem. In other words, avoid blame, and try to see the situation from the perspectives of all involved. Doing this will help you stay open to listening and communicating, which will facilitate finding an appropriate solution.
  3. Use positive steps when dealing with difficult conversations. Difficult conversations can be tough to manage, so the authors outline a few constructive steps to ease the process:
  • Begin on common ground—Since the conversation promises to be challenging, start with one or more unifying points, even if this simply means acknowledging and empathizing with the other person’s feelings. Do what you can to acknowledge the positive aspects of the relationship, such as valuing the person’s work.
  • Listen to the other person’s side—Give the person a chance to speak and feel heard. Not feeling heard causes frustration.
  • Avoid “comebacks”—Planning your answers prevents you from listening, so again, allow the person to express his or her feelings and thoughts, and avoid becoming defensive.
  • Explain your viewpoint—This is the part where you explain your feelings, actions, and thoughts in a clear, direct, simple, and empathetic manner. A clear, but sensitive explanation will help the other person to feel better about the situation.
  • Bring the conversation ahead—At this point, the conversation needs to turn toward a solution that is helpful to the requirements of all parties. In the authors’ example of an employee who had been passed over for a promotion, that meant expressing appreciation for the person’s work as well as interest in developing her skills further, followed by asking for her input.
  • Keep communicating after the conversation is over—Tough conversations imply tough situations, which require more than the usual amount of care to ensure a good outcome. What that means in practical terms—for example, scheduling formal or informal meetings—will vary with each situation, but be sure to establish some sort of ongoing communication to make sure that things are progressing in a positive direction.

 

The authors conclude by pointing out that if you can successfully implement the above strategies and avoid a defensive stance, a difficult interaction can actually present an opportunity for building a stronger relationship.

TalentSmart® is Travis Bradberry and Jean Greaves’s emotional intelligence training, consulting and testing agency that administers the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal® test. Their position as leaders in the field has given them the chance to observe the progress of hundreds of thousands of individuals at all career levels. In addition, they have taken an interest in the patterns and shifts in larger EQ trends, such as overall implications for health, happiness, career success, and earnings potential; differences and similarities between the generations and the sexes; and the influence of culture.

 

Overall Trends in Emotional Intelligence

In their study of changes in emotional intelligence in the US population, Bradberry and Greaves noticed not only an upward trend in the people they tested and instructed, but also in the population as a whole. From 2003 to 2007, there was a steady increase in both average worker EQ as well as an overall increase in the number of favorable scores, which climbed from 13.7 to about 18.3 percent of the population. As the authors point out, those four percentage points represent millions of people. At the same time, there was a significant decrease (17 percentage points) in the number of people with low EQ. This was mitigated somewhat in 2008, when the recession hit the country, but the most significant point was that the overall positive progress was occurring without prior EQ knowledge or testing in the new sample group. The authors drew two main conclusions from the data: that EQ was affected somewhat by troubling circumstances; and that it was infectious—that the behavior of those around us tends to influence our own behavior regardless of whether we have been consciously trained in the same direction.

 

EQ and Gender

In 2003, Bradberry and Greaves’s research showed a significant discrepancy between men and women in emotional intelligence skills. In all but one category—self-awareness, in which their scores were equal—women outperformed men in their mastery of emotions and relationships. Since then, however, the EQ scores of the different sexes have grown closer as men learn to manage and attend to their emotions as a useful part of their decision-making process. Bradberry and Greaves found that most of the best male decision makers also ranked high in emotional intelligence, contradicting the notion that good decision-making skills ignore the emotions.

 

EQ and Career Level

After testing 500,000 people at all levels of business across the globe, Bradberry and Greaves noticed a steady climb in EQ scores that peaked with middle management and then plummeted until it reached the group with the lowest scores, the CEOs. Yet, regardless of the fact that top executives spend less time managing people, those with higher EQs still exceeded their colleagues in performance. In fact, EQ is considered the single most powerful leadership quality as well as the top ingredient in determining performance in any job.

 

EQ and Age Differences

In studying the four generations that ranged from the Traditionalists and Baby Boomers to Generations X and Y, it seemed at first glance that there was a correlation between succeeding generations and their capacity for self-management: the younger the generation, the less control people had over managing their emotions. This did not bode well for the workforce—in particular its leadership—since Baby Boomers are in the process of retiring in large numbers. But further examination revealed that the correlation had more to do with the maturity that comes with age than any peculiarity pertaining to the different generations, and since EQ is an improvable skill, that means that the younger generation can accelerate its improvement in self-management ability through training and practice, thus providing the nation’s infrastructure with the leadership that will be needed to fill the gap left by the exiting Baby Boomers.

 

EQ and Cultural Influences

In 2005, TalentSmart® decided to investigate what was behind China’s emergence as a knowledge leader in the global market. Using the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal® to test 3000 senior executives in their own language, they discovered that although American and Chinese executives scored similarly in self-awareness and social awareness, the Chinese scored fifteen points higher in self-management and relationship management. In other words, they were putting their self- and social awareness to use while American senior managers preferred to simply pay lip service to implementing the same ideas. The authors mention, for example, that Chinese managers regularly take the time to discuss business, career goals, and family issues with their employees over dinner. They are also held—and hold themselves—to the same high standards of behavior that they expect of their workers. As the authors point out, what this information suggests is that emotional intelligence and economic well-being are strongly linked, which means that cultures that emphasize emotional and relationship management skills will have a natural advantage.

Although it was in the middle of December, the weather had been good enough to allow the ladies to walk. Emma had a charitable visit to pay to a poor and sickly family who lived just outside of Highbury. The way to this house led them close to Mr. Elton’s home. Emma suggested that Harriet and her riddle book would soon be living in this house. Harriet loved the house. Although Emma did not visit this area often, she was sure she would have the need to once Harriet and Mr. Elton were married. She wished they could go in, but there was no excuse she could think of to allow them to visit. Harriet wonders why Emma was not going to marry anyone. Emma admits that she is charming, but to marry she must find someone else charming. She has no intention to marry. Harriet cannot believe it—she thinks it is odd for a woman to talk like Emma does. Emma has never been in love, and she does not need a fortune. She will never be like Miss Bates, an old maid; she will simply be unmarried. A single woman of good fortune is respectable.

Harriet wonders what Emma will do with herself when she is older. Emma will continue to study as she has been, and will spend time with the family she has. Harriet wonders if Emma has met Miss Bates’ niece, Jane Fairfax. Emma has. She is sick of having to spend time with her every time she comes to Highbury, and when she is not at Highbury every letter she has sent is read over and over for a month. It is boring to Emma.

Her worries disappeared once she reached the cottage. Emma was sympathetic and gave as much help as she could. As they left, Emma commented that her own worries seem small by comparison. As they walked down the lane, Mr. Elton came in the other direction. Mr. Elton was about to visit the same family, but hearing the two ladies had just come from the house decided to delay his own visit. They discussed what they could do for the family, and Emma was pleased that Mr. Elton would see Harriet’s charitable side. She wished she was not with them as the proposal could have come right then and there. Emma attempted to separate herself from them by walking on a narrow footpath just above the main road, leaving Harriet and Mr. Elton by themselves. However, because Harriet was dependent on Emma, she started to join Emma, and that would bring Mr. Elton up to the path, as well. Emma stopped, pretending to need to tie her laces up and begged them to continue walking. They did. Emma waited as long as she reasonably could. Thankfully, a child came up the road which gave Emma someone to talk as she walked. Although she tried to keep their pace slow to give Harriet and Mr. Elton time to talk, they still caught up with the couple. They appeared to be talking about something quite passionate, and Emma was upset to find Mr. Elton was talking about a dinner he had the previous night.  Emma thought that this line of conversation might have led to the proposal, and was sad to have caught up with them so quickly.

When they reached the vicarage, Emma stopped again and pulled her lace off her boot and threw it into the ditch. She asked them if they could stop at Mr. Elton’s home to borrow something to tie her boot with. Mr. Elton was happy to welcome them to his house. While Mr. Elton and Harriet waited, Emma kept the housekeeper in conversation for ten minutes to stay away and give them a chance. She found them standing at the window, like lovers, but he had not hinted at or asked anything important. Emma convinces herself that Mr. Elton is acting cautiously. Despite the disappointment, she assured herself that they were building toward the proposal.

Emma decided that Mr. Elton had to come to his own conclusions now as her sister was about to visit, and there would be no more opportunities to push for the proposal. However, she did not wish for more time with the couple as she wanted them to start thinking and acting for themselves. It had been a long time since Isabella, John and the rest of the family had visited Hartfield, so this visit was made extra special. Although Mr. Woodhouse was worried about the journey they had to take, however small, the family arrived without any problems. Isabella was sympathetic to her father, whose nerves were slightly frayed due to the children and the noise of so many people arriving at the house, and made sure that the children did not disturb him.

Isabella was an elegant woman with gentle, affectionate ways. She was a true family person and could never see flaws or faults in any of them. Although she did not inherit her mother’s intelligence, she did inherit her father’s worries and delicate health. Mr. John Knightley was a clever and respectable man with reserved manners. Occasionally, he would say something out of line which Emma always caught, and Isabella never did. He was not one of Emma’s favourite people. After the initial welcome, they sat down to discuss the changes at Hartfield, including the loss of Miss Taylor/Mrs. Weston. Mr. Woodhouse worried that Randalls was not good for her, and wished that he would see her more often. Emma corrected her father, pointing out that they have only missed seeing them one day since they were married and that he shouldn’t give them the wrong impression.

The conversation then turns to talk of Frank Churchill. While there was speculation that he might visit soon after the marriage, this came to nothing, and he has not been mentioned since. Mr. Woodhouse tells them about the letter Mrs. Weston received. Isabella does not know how a father and child could be separated. Mr. John Knightley does not think much of the Churchills. He suggests that Mr. Weston does not have strong feelings, and those that he does have concern his own enjoyment. Emma did not like this impression of Mr. Weston but struggled against saying anything to keep the peace.

Mr. Knightley came to dinner that night despite Mr. Woodhouse wanting to keep Isabella for himself. Emma knew that Mr. Knightley had every right to attend, however, and wanted him to be there so that they could be friends once again. Emma had not been in the wrong, and Mr. Knightley would never admit that he had been, so they would have to pretend to forget they were arguing. When he came into the room, Emma had one of the children in her arms, which helped Mr. Knightley’s mood turn from grave to his normal mood. Emma was delighted that they were friends again. She felt confident enough to comment that although they often disagree, they never disagree about their nieces and nephews. Mr. Knightley suggests they wouldn’t disagree about the nature of men and women if she was as reasonable as she was with the children. Emma points out that she seems to be in the wrong every time. Mr. Knightley agrees: he was sixteen when she was born, after all. Emma suggests that now she is older, their understanding of the world should be nearer. He agrees, but adds that he has the advantage of sixteen years over her still, and of being a man. Mr. Knightley asks her not to look back over their past disagreements and to move on. Emma asks one more thing before they move onto another conversation: she wonders if Mr. Martin is disappointed by Harriet’s refusal. Mr. Martin could not be more disappointed. Emma is sorry for that but shakes Mr. Knightley’s hand so they can be friends once again.

The dinner was a quiet one, with two groups of people in conversation: Mr. Woodhouse and Isabella on one side, and the two Knightley brothers on the other. Emma occasionally joined either conversation. The men talked about business, while Mr. Woodhouse begged Isabella to have some gruel. Although he asked the others to have some as well, they declined, which did not make Mr. Woodhouse happy. After a moment, he complained about Isabella visiting the sea during the Autumn instead of coming to Hartfield. He did not approve of the sea air and was sure that it had almost killed him once. Isabella, as attached to her doctor, Mr. Wingfield, as Mr. Woodhouse was attached to his own Mr. Perry, insisted that the sea air was recommended for the children specifically. Emma begs them to not talk about the sea because she has never been able to visit. They talk for a little about Mr. Perry and his family, and it is suggested that Isabella’s young daughter, Bella, should have her throat looked at, but Isabella is not worried about it anymore—the sea air did it good. Before Mr. Woodhouse can continue on, Emma changes the subject to the Bates family. Isabella will visit them the next day and hopes they are well. Mr. Woodhouse tells her Mrs. Bates had a cold a month before, which changes the subject back to health. Mr. Woodhouse is upset that Isabella has to live in London as it is a unhealthy place. Isabella insists that they live in the healthier part of London, and there is nothing to worry about. Mr. Woodhouse does not think it compares to Hartfield, and after a week of visiting, the family will all look different. He does not think Isabella looks well at all. Isabella insists that they are all looked after by Mr. Wingfield and are in good health. Mr. Woodhouse suggests that Mr. John Knightley looks unwell, which frightens Isabella. Mr. John Knightley tells her not to worry about anything.

Emma turned to the Knightley brothers to escape talking about health and sicknesses and found that on returning to her father and sister, they were talking about Jane Fairfax. Isabella complimented Jane and wished that Emma could see her more often. Mr. Woodhouse suggests that Emma could not have a better friend than Harriet, but Isabella does not know of anyone as accomplished as Jane.

After the gruel was eaten, the conversation turned once more to Mr. Woodhouse’s regret that Isabella had gone to South End. Mr. Perry had told him South End was an unhealthy place to go. Isabella insists that it was a healthy place to visit. Mr. Woodhouse suggested visiting Cromer, but Isabella thinks it is too far to go. He tells his daughter that Mr. Perry agreed with his opinion: they should have travelled further for their health. Mr. John Knightley stepped in then and told Mr. Woodhouse that Mr. Perry should keep his business to himself. He suggests that if Mr. Perry knows how to travel 130 miles with a wife and five children at no more expense than it takes to travel 40, then he might listen to Mr. Perry’s opinions. Mr. Knightley agrees and changes the subject quickly to planning for a pathway. They make plans to look over it the following morning.

Mr. Woodhouse was quite upset that his good friend, Mr. Perry, had been insulted, but Emma and Isabella managed to pull him into a better mood.

Isabella was happy to visit her old friends with her five children in tow and have her father and sister to talk over the day with when she returned. They did not usually visit friends in the evening, but they could not avoid going to the Randalls to have dinner with the Weston family. Mr. Woodhouse could not even worry about how to get there as they had enough carriages to make room for everyone, including Harriet. The night before the dinner, Harriet had gone home with a cold. Emma visited her the following day and found Harriet was feverish and had a sore throat. She would not be able to go to the dinner party that night. Emma sat with Harriet while Mrs. Goddard ran her errands for as long as she could, and tried to make Harriet happier by reminding her Mr. Elton would be upset and missing her. When Emma left Mrs. Goddard’s she bumped into Mr. Elton. They talked for a moment about Harriet. Mr. John Knightley returned from his small visit to Donwell with his two older boys, and they all walked together. After Emma told them how Harriet was, Mr. Elton was surprised Emma sat with her. He worried that Harriet was infectious and that Emma had risked herself by sitting with her. Emma was not worried before, but now she was concerned about going to the Weston’s that night. It looked like it might snow. While she would not be able to persuade her father not to go, Mr. Elton seemed like he was getting sick and should stay at home. Although Mr. Elton clearly wanted to go to the dinner party, he had no choice but to agree to stay home. Emma was pleased—it meant he could ask after Harriet for the rest of the evening. However, Mr. John Knightley offered Mr. Elton a seat in his carriage, and so Mr. Elton was to attend the dinner party after all. He looked happy. Emma did not understand why Mr. Elton would be so pleased to go to Randalls when Harriet was so sick, but explained it away as one of the things single men do. They like to go to dinner parties and cannot refuse invitations. Mr. Elton left them then to go and visit Harriet, and Emma was pleased that he sounded sentimental when he said her name.

Mr. John Knightley admitted he had never met a man so intent on pleasing ladies in his company. He suggests that Mr. Elton is in love with Emma, and that Emma has been encouraging him. Emma insists that he is mistaken—they are friends and nothing else.

That night, Mr. Woodhouse could not be persuaded to stay home. He was determined to go and set off with Isabella in their own carriage. It was cold, and the snow started to fall by the time the second carriage started off toward Randalls. Mr. John Knightley, Emma’s companion in the carriage, was not in a good mood. He did not want to go all the way to the Weston’s house in the snow and complained the entire way to the Vicarage to collect Mr. Elton. He did not understand why other people could insist that their friends come to dinner while it is snowing and they could be warm at home. Emma could not agree, nor disagree and so said nothing.

Mr. Elton was immensely happy when he stepped into the carriage, and Emma was surprised considering Harriet was not better. She wondered if he had received a different report from Mrs. Goddard. Emma told him she was sorry Harriet would not be with them, which Mr. Elton agreed with. She was satisfied with his reply, but upset when he changed the subject moments later to express his admiration for sheep-skin carriages and the Christmas-like weather. He tells them about the time he was snowed in at a friend’s house for a week. Mr. John Knightley states he will not be snowed in for a week at Randalls. While Emma would normally be amused by the conversation, she did not understand Mr. Elton’s joyful mood. He seemed to have forgotten Harriet. Mr. Elton is looking forward to many things at dinner, but Mr. John Knightley is only looking forward to being back at Hartfield.

Both Mr. Elton and Mr. John Knightley had to alter their attitudes slightly when they went into Mrs. Weston’s drawing room. Emma was honestly happy to be with the Westons, whom she spoke with without reserve and always found the conversation intelligent and interesting. Emma was determined to not think of Mr. Elton’s odd behaviour and spend time with Mrs. Weston. When Emma looked around her, she was upset to find that Mr. Elton was sat next to her. This made it difficult not to think about his odd behaviour or to suspect that Mr. John Knightley might be right about his feelings for Emma. Emma could not be rude, but Mr. Elton spoke at length and gave compliments for every facet of Emma’s life—her drawings, her father, Mrs. Weston. Emma could hear small sections of the conversation going on with Mr. Weston and knew they were talking about Frank Churchill, but as soon as she could keep Mr. Elton quiet, the conversation was done again.

Frank Churchill had always interested Emma, even though she was determined to never marry. She had thought to herself that if she was going to marry someone, she could marry Frank. He seemed suited to her in age and personality. She believed that the Weston’s thought of Emma and Frank as a possible match, and this made her even more anxious to see him face to face. When they sat down to dinner, Emma escaped Mr. Elton and was sat by Mr. Weston. He tells her that they are expecting Frank to visit in the next two weeks, and would like to add him and Harriet to their group of companions. In a letter, Frank wrote that he had wanted to visit sooner, but did not have control over his own schedule. Emma is pleased by this. Mr. Weston confides in Emma that Frank will only be able to come if some friends delay their visit to Enscombe. He thinks they will delay because Mrs. Churchill at Enscombe dislikes them—they still have to invite them out of politeness once every two or three years, but they always delay. Emma agrees with Mr. Weston’s belief that Frank will be able to come.

After dinner, Emma discusses Frank’s visit with Mrs. Weston, who does not believe he will come and worries about the regret it will cause. Mrs. Weston admits to Isabella and Emma that Mrs. Churchill is a bad tempered woman who rules over Frank’s schedule. She has to agree for him to come for him to be able to visit. Isabella knows Mrs. Churchill and is sorry that Frank has to deal with her. Isabella thinks it is a blessing that she never had any children. Mr. Woodhouse joined them, then, and while he was talking to Isabella, Emma found a moment to state that she thought the first visit between Mrs. Weston and Frank would be an unpleasant one, but that it must be done. Mrs. Weston admits that the Churchills always seem to be jealous of anyone else who manages to spend time with Frank. Emma cannot believe that a young man does not have control over where he visits, especially to his own father. Mrs. Weston corrects Emma: she does not know what life at Enscombe is, and so she should not judge Frank in the same way she judges other men. Emma states she will not be satisfied unless Frank comes. Mrs. Weston reminds her she cannot control someone with a bad temper—Frank will come if he is allowed to do so.

After Mr. Woodhouse had drunk his tea, he was ready to go home. The women distracted him from this need until the other three men joined them in the drawing room. Mr. Elton, without asking, sat between Mrs. Weston and Emma. Emma was willing to forgive him for this because she was in such a good mood, and because Mr. Elton’s first subject was Harriet. He stated he was nervous for Harriet and wondered if Emma had heard anything since they had arrived at Randalls. However, the conversation seemed to turn in an odd direction. Mr. Elton was more concerned for Emma’s health and the possibility of her having a sore throat, than he was worried about Harriet. He begged Emma not to visit Harriet again until he had Mr. Perry’s opinion. Emma tried to change the subject, but there was no way to stop Mr. Elton expressing his worries. Emma realized then that he was in love with her instead of Harriet. When Mr. Elton asks for Mrs. Weston’s help in persuading Emma to think of herself before others, Mrs. Weston is too surprised to say anything. Mr. Elton moves seats to talk to Isabella.

Mr. John Knightley came back into the room and told them all that the ground was covered in snow, and that it was still snowing hard. Mr. Woodhouse was quiet because he was worried, but they assured him they would get back to Hartfield safely before midnight. Mr. Weston admitted he knew it had been snowing for some time, but didn’t want to tell anyone and have them all leave so early. He also wanted to keep them at Randalls over the night, but Mrs. Weston did not agree—they only had two spare rooms! Mr. Woodhouse looked to Emma for a decision as to what to do. Isabella was afraid of being separated from her children for so long and decided that she and her husband would leave immediately for Hartfield. She would not even mind having to walk half the way. Emma did not want to be left behind at Randalls. Mr. Knightley returned to announce that they could all get home safely—there was not much snow on the ground, and only a few flakes were falling from the sky. He had already sent for the carriages. Isabella was relieved, but Mr. Woodhouse wanted to leave immediately. Emma and Mr. Knightley exchanged a few brief words to establish that they would leave then and there for her father’s sake.

Mr. Woodhouse was helped by Mr. Knightley and Mr. Weston. Isabella joined Mr. Woodhouse in the carriage, and Mr. John Knightley—forgetting that he belonged in the other carriage—stepped in behind her. Emma found herself alone with Mr. Elton in the second carriage. Previous to this particular day, Emma would not have minded, but now the moment was awkward. Emma decided to talk about the weather, but had her hand taken by Mr. Elton. He declared his love for Emma and feared he would die if she refused him. He wanted the engagement to be decided on right away. Emma tried to stop him, thinking he was drunk, but he would not listen to her. Finally, Emma expressed her astonishment that he would be speaking to her like this and not to Harriet. Mr. Elton does not know what she means. Emma tells him to say nothing else, and she will try to forget it. Emma could not believe that after a month of paying Harriet attention that he would turn and announce his love for her. Mr. Elton reveals he never thought of Harriet as anything else but his friend. He is sorry, but he has only ever thought of her—he could never think of Harriet while Emma was close by. He is sure that Emma understands him. Emma did not know what to say and remained quiet. Mr. Elton took her hand and decided her silence means she must have understood him. Emma denies it—she admits she thought Harriet was the object of his affection. She was pleased he was pursuing Harriet. Mr. Elton hopes that she will be married well, but not to him—she would not be an equal alliance for him. He visited Hartfield because of Emma, and because of the encouragement she was giving him. Emma corrects him—the encouragement was only to ensure his marriage to Harriet. Emma does not want to marry. Mr. Elton was angry and spent the rest of the carriage ride in silence. He did not say another word and left Emma alone once they reached the Vicarage.

Emma arrived at Hartfield to find her father worried about her taking a solitary carriage ride. Mr. John Knightley was now in a very kind mood—so kind that he saw to Mr. Woodhouse’s needs and made sure he was comfortable. Despite this peaceful scene, Emma was seriously troubled.

Now alone in her room, Emma sat down to think. She was upset that Mr. Elton had been such a disappointment to her, and that Harriet would be so upset. She was humiliated and ashamed that she had persuaded Harriet that he liked her. She did not know how she could have been so confused, and so looked back at their past interactions. He had seemed eager about the painting, and had written the riddle which pointed to Harriet. She had thought Mr. Elton’s behaviour towards her had changed lately, but she had only explained it as respect for Harriet’s friend. She was grateful that Mr. John Knightley had first suggested it—both Knightley brothers seemed to have an ability to know exactly what was going on. Mr. Knightley had known who Mr. Elton really was, and Emma was ashamed to remember how wrong she had been.

Emma liked Mr. Elton less because of his attraction to her and was insulted that he had hopes they would marry. She thought he was only pretending to be in love with her to make a good match in marriage and did not think he would be that disappointed by her refusal. She believed he would try for someone else with a fortune in enough time. Emma was upset, however, by Mr. Elton’s belief she had encouraged him and knew how he felt. She thought he might not know how inferior he was to her in terms of family and fortune. The Eltons were nobodies compared to the Woodhouses. Emma admitted to herself that her own attention to him would have made a man like Mr. Elton think he was favoured by her. She should not have talked Harriet into being attached to Mr. Elton and given her hope. She was sorry that she was so excited to have persuaded Harriet out of marrying Mr. Martin because it led her to more ambitious tasks. She should have stopped there and done no more.

Emma thought about what she would have to do: she would have to explain to Harriet, and help her thorough all the suffering—that is, if Harriet did not break off their friendship because of the awkwardness of their situation. Emma woke up the next morning even more aware of her mistakes, but ready to start fixing them. She was pleased, however, that only the three of them would ever know what was going on. She did not have to go to Church that day because of the snow on the ground, which meant she did not have to talk to anyone outside of her immediate family. The rest of Isabella’s visit was wonderful and peaceful, but Emma still felt uncomfortable over her upcoming explanations to Harriet.

Isabella and Mr. John Knightley were able to leave Hartfield soon enough despite the weather, and despite Mr. Woodhouse’s attempts to persuade Isabella to stay behind. The family left, and Mr. Woodhouse was left to complain about his poor Isabella who was in reality quite a happy woman.

They received a letter from Mr. Elton that night that told Mr. Woodhouse he was leaving for Bath for a few weeks. He was sorry that he could not personally say goodbye to the family. Emma was delighted—this was exactly what she wanted and admired him for leaving. She did not, however, appreciate the tone in which it was announced. Mr. Elton sounded resentful, and her name was not mentioned one time in the letter. Emma hoped the letter did not arouse suspicion in her father. Mr. Woodhouse did not see anything wrong in the language of the letter but was upset that Mr. Elton was leaving so suddenly and hoped he would get safely to Bath. Emma spent the night persuading him that everything was fine.

Emma now had to give her explanations to Harriet. She went to Mrs. Goddard’s the next day to destroy all of the hope she had built up over the last six weeks. Harriet’s tears made Emma feel she might not ever like herself again, but Harriet did not blame her or anyone. She had poor self esteem and thought that she would never have deserved him. Only someone as kind as Emma could have thought it was possible. Emma thought Harriet’s grief was hugely dignified and thought that Harriet was the better of the two of them. If she acted more like Harriet, she might be happier. Emma left Mrs. Goddard’s with the resolutions to be humble and repress her imagination still strong in her mind. She would see to her father and Harriet’s comfort, and she would show her affection in different ways than match-making. She would also attempt to drive Mr. Elton from her mind. She considered that Harriet, being as young as she was, might be over it by the time Mr. Elton returned so that they could all go back to being friends. They had to bear the awkwardness of future meetings as none of them had the ability to leave Highbury. Harriet was affected the most by her friends at Mrs. Goddard’s who all spoke about Mr. Elton with adoration.

Frank Churchill did not come—a letter arrived close to the time when he was to appear excusing himself from a visit to Randalls for the foreseeable future. Mrs. Weston was disappointed, even more so than her husband. While Mr. Weston believed him coming at a future time would be better for everyone, and for the weather, Mrs. Weston could only imagine more delays and excuses in their future. She was concerned for what her husband would have to suffer in the future. Emma did not genuinely care that much about Frank Churchill aside from it being a disappointment to the Westons. She wanted to keep out of temptation and be quiet. To make sure she did not upset the Westons, she made sure she paid enough interest in it as her old self might have. She announced the news to Mr. Knightley and made sure to blame the Churchills for keeping him away from Highbury. Mr. Knightley believes he could have come if he wanted to. Emma does not know why he said that as the Churchills will not let him. Mr. Knightley will not believe this without proof. Mr. Knightley believes he might think himself superior to his other friends and family and care for nothing else but pleasure. It would be possible for a man his age to visit his father whenever he wanted to. Emma accuses Mr. Knightley of only seeing it from his perspective—he has been in control of his life for a long time and has not had to deal with bad tempers. Mr. Knightley argues that Frank has no reason for doting on his Aunt and Uncle’s bad tempers as he does not need anymore fortune or pleasure—he already has both. He was at Weymouth a while ago, which is proof enough that he can leave the Churchills. Emma believes it is unfair to judge someone without specific details of their situation. Mr. Knightley suggests that if he announced his decision to see his father in a direct and manly way, then there would be no opposition to the visit. Emma agrees, but points out he might not be able to return again afterwards. Frank is a dependent man! Mr. Knightley thinks this statement would raise other people’s expectations and opinions of Frank. They would respect him more. If he acted like this more often, then they would be far more willing to be persuaded by him. Emma believes Mr. Knightley has this attitude because he is used to persuading people to do what he wants them to. If he had lived with the Churchills, he may not have been able to do the same as he had in life. They continue to argue back and forth—Mr. Knightley believes he is a weak young man if he cannot keep his promises because of the needs and will of other people. He is now a man and needs to act like it. Emma does not think they will ever agree about Frank—she is sure that he is not a weak man. Even if he has a milder personality than Mr. Knightley, he will secure friendships with many people. Mr. Knightley accuses him of living a life of pleasure and creating excuses for it when it suits him—his letters disgust Mr. Knightley. Emma tells him he is the only one who feels this way, but Mr. Knightley does not think Mrs. Weston is satisfied by them. If Mrs. Weston had been someone of a higher status, Frank would have visited as soon as the marriage had taken place. Emma accuse him of being determined to think badly of Frank, but Mr. Knightley seems insulted by this. He would be willing to acknowledge him if he had merits, but he hears of none worth a man. Emma thinks he will be a fine addition to the company at Highbury—they do not always have the opportunity to spend time with fine young men. Emma believes he will be able to talk to everyone about everything. Mr. Knightley would not like this in a man of 23—he would be insufferable to talk to and be around. Emma admits she is prejudiced in her attitude towards Frank because of her love of the Westons. Mr. Knightley does not think about him often. Emma was angry with this statement, although she was not sure why, and changed the subject. Emma thought Mr. Knightley was usually quite reasonable in his thoughts of others, but had not considered that he could dislike someone so different to him.

Emma and Harriet were walking together one morning. Emma had had enough of talking about Mr. Elton and was growing tired of the subject. She did not want to keep thinking about her mistakes. When Emma thought she had successfully changed the subject to that of the poor, Harriet interjected by reminding them that Mr. Elton was so good for the poor. Emma knew she needed to do something else to stop her. When they reached the house where Mrs. and Miss Bates lived she decided to visit them and seek help from the group to distract Harriet. Mr. Knightley had often reminded Emma of her faults in failing to pay proper attention to the Bates, but because they were tiresome women below her in society, she rarely went near them. Emma also felt safe going in because there could not be a letter from Jane at this time. They were welcomed with kindness and cake. A Mrs. Cole had recently visited and liked the cake a lot. With mention of the Coles, Emma knew that Mr. Elton could not be far behind in the conversation as they were friends. Emma knew that they would have to talk about the letter announcing his trip to Bath once more, and discuss what he might be doing. She had been ready for this conversation, but knew after this they could move onto other conversations. However, the conversation actually leaped into a consideration of Jane, who had written that morning. Emma politely asked after Jane. Miss Bates rambled on for a while about Jane’s writing ability, the length of the letter, her mother’s poor eyes and so on, until she had to stop talking to breathe. Emma took that moment to compliment Jane’s handwriting, which Miss Bates was delighted with. She repeated Emma’s comment twice to Mrs. Bates, who could not hear her properly. Emma considered making an excuse and leaving, but Miss Bates continued on with the conversation. It is revealed that Jane is due in Highbury the following week, which is why they received the unusual letter. She will be with them for three months while the Campbells, who she lives with, go to Ireland. Jane has heard about Ireland’s beauty from Mr. Dixon when they used to walk together, but Colonel Campbell and Mrs. Campbell refused to let them walk by themselves anymore. The Bates thought Jane had wanted to go to Ireland with them. Emma realized something about Jane and Mr. Dixon, then, and pushed for more information with an innocently worded question. Miss Bates is all compliments for Mr. Dixon, who is considered a charming young man, especially after he helped save her from falling into the sea. Emma wonders if Jane prefers to spend time with the Bates family after all of this. Miss Bates believes that Jane has made this choice for herself, but Emma believes that Mrs. Dixon must be disappointed by not having Jane come with them. Miss Bates then changes the subject slightly again. The news that Jane has been unwell upset Miss Bates when she read the letter, and gives them a summary of everything Jane wrote about. Just as Miss Bates is about to read the entire letter to them, Emma stands and announces her father will be waiting for them. Walking away, Emma was pleased she had managed to escape the actual letter even though she heard everything Jane had to say anyway.

Jane Fairfax’s history is revealed. She was an orphan and the only child of Mrs. Bates’ youngest daughter. Lieutenant Fairfax and Jane Bates had married and had a child. Lieutenant Fairfax had died in battle, and then Jane Bates had died from consumption. At this moment,  she was taken care of by her grandmother and aunt, and it had seemed likely that she would live there all of her life without the advantage of connections to higher society. A friend of her father’s, Colonel Campbell, took control of her life as he owed Lieutenant Fairfax his life. Years passed before he returned to the country, but searched for Jane when he did. He had one daughter about Jane’s age, and so Jane became their guest and spent a lot of time with them. At nine years old, Colonel Campbell took charge of her education, and from then on she had lived with the Campbells entirely and only visited her Grandmother every now and then. She would be brought up so that she could teach others because Colonel Campbell could not provide her fortune enough to be independent. He hoped that giving her an education would assist in providing for her in the future.

While Jane was educated enough now to start working, none of the family could do without her, and so her leaving the Campbells was delayed. Miss Campbell and Mr. Dixon had grown close to one another and had been married. Jane, in the meantime, could have stayed with the Campbells for forever because of their love for her, but they knew that this would be selfish. Jane fixed on the age of 21 as the age when she would retreat from pleasure and enter into her life as a governess. The Campbells had agreed with Jane that going to Highbury for her last few months of freedom would be a good idea, no matter what their own motives for not having her come to Ireland might have been.

And so, instead of receiving Frank Churchill at Highbury as expected, Jane Fairfax came instead after a two year absence. Emma was upset that she would have to be polite to a person she disliked for three months. She did not know why she did not like Jane. Mr. Knightley suggested it was because she saw the accomplished young woman in her that she wished she could see in herself. Emma’s reasons were that so much fuss was made over Jane, and everyone assumed that because they were the same age, they should be friends. Emma was struck with how wrong she had been about Jane’s manners and appearance. She was elegant, graceful and had beautiful features—much more than Emma could remember. Emma sat looking at Jane thinking she might like her after all. When she remembered that Jane would sink low in society by becoming a governess, she only thought of her in terms of compassion. She also considered the sacrifice that Jane had made on account of Mr. Dixon, who appeared to have been distracted from his wife. Emma felt respect for her by dividing herself from the family while they left for Ireland. When Emma left, she was upset that there was no one in Highbury who could marry Jane and give her her independence. While these were good feelings, they did not last long, and everything started to appear as it usually did when Jane visited. They had to listen to how sickly her Aunt was, and Jane’s little offences started again. Emma played music and Jane played a superior performance. She was also cold and cautious and did not provide her real opinion. Emma was suspicious of this reserved behaviour. Jane refused on giving opinions on Mr. Dixon, their friendship or the match between him and Miss Campbell. Emma saw through this artificial behaviour and decided that there was probably something she was hiding—either Mr. Dixon had been close to announcing his love for Jane, or he was only marrying Miss Campbell for her fortune. Jane and Frank Churchill had been at Weymouth at the same time, and Emma was no more successful in finding out real information about him. Jane only reiterated what other people had already said about him, and Emma could not forgive her for it.

Mr. Knightley was pleased with Emma’s improved treatment of Jane, and so is Mr. Woodhouse. Emma, however, reveals she did not enjoy the evening, particularly because Jane avoided answering so many of her questions and giving her the information she wanted. Mr. Knightley was disappointed by that. Mr. Woodhouse had a good night, even if Miss Bates talked too much, and thought Jane must have enjoyed herself because she had Emma’s company. Mr. Knightley added that Emma had Jane, too. To save Mr. Knightley’s nerves, Emma complimented Jane on her elegance and how much she pitied her. Mr. Knightley was visibly grateful for this. Before he could say so, however, Mr. Woodhouse expressed how sorry he was for their situation and asked Emma whether or not they should send them some pork. Emma reveals she has already sent the whole hind-quarter. Mr. Woodhouse agrees with her decision.

Mr. Knightley starts to tell her some news that will interest her, but is interrupted by Miss Bates and Jane arriving to thank them for the pork. They reveal that Mr. Elton is to be married. This was Mr. Knightley’s news, too. Mr. Elton will be married to a Miss Hawkins from Bath. Miss Bates is surprised to find Mr. Knightley already knows the news, but he reveals he was with Mr. Cole when he received the letter. Emma is pleased by the news. Mr. Woodhouse thinks he is too young to marry. Miss Bates is excited to have a new neighbour to visit. Jane asks if Mr. Elton is a tall man. Emma answers that most at Highbury believe him to be perfect both in body and mind. Miss Bates continues to ramble on about various subjects—the pork, their new neighbours and the health of the Campbells. Emma comments that Mr. Elton and Miss Hawkins can not have known each other for long for they have never heard of her before. Emma tries to push Jane to give her opinion, but she refuses to give it considering she has never even seen Mr. Elton before. Miss Bates wonders if Mr. Dixon looks like Mr. John Knightley. To Jane, they are the opposites. She thinks Mr. Dixon was quite plain, but then reveals she is only giving the general opinion of him, not her own. Miss Bates wishes them a good morning and leaves with Jane.

Emma was pleased with the news of Mr. Elton’s upcoming marriage as it proved he did not suffer from Emma’s refusal. She was sorry, however, for Harriet’s feelings. She decided the news should come from her, and not from others who would not be as sympathetic. However, it was nearing the time when Harriet should be visiting Hartfield, and Emma worried she might meet Miss Bates on her way up. Harriet came in extremely agitated and told her what had just happened. She had left Mrs. Goddard’s, afraid it might rain, and hurried to Hartfield as fast as she could. It began to rain, so she took shelter from it in Ford’s, a shop. Elizabeth Martin and her brother, Mr. Martin, stepped into the shop. Elizabeth saw her, but then looked away. Mr. Martin did not see her and went to the other end of the shop. He looked around, saw Harriet, and then started to whisper with his sister. Harriet was convinced they were talking about her. Elizabeth then came up and asked Harriet how she was. Their meeting was not as friendly as it had been before, but Elizabeth was kind to her. Harriet was terribly sad she was treated so well after the refusal of her brother. Mr. Martin then came up to her and advised her to go by Mr. Cole’s stables to avoid getting wet, and then returned to Elizabeth. Harriet does not know what to do—she has been made uncomfortable by the encounter.

Emma sat quietly for a moment and thought. She pitied the Martin’s. He was obviously sorry to lose her. Emma told Harriet she had behaved well in the meeting and that she shouldn’t think much about it as the first meeting was over and done with. Harriet agreed, but then talked of nothing else. Emma, determined to stop her, gave her the news of Mr. Elton’s engagement. Harriet found herself interested in the fortunate Miss Hawkins which Emma hoped pushed Mr. Martin out of her head again. Emma was glad that the meeting had taken place, and considering that the Martin sisters had never visited Mrs. Goddard’s, they would probably never meet again for a year.

It had been almost a week since Miss Hawkin’s name was first spoken in Highbury, but everyone had already heard of her beauty and accomplishments. When Mr. Elton himself arrived in Highbury all that was left to reveal was her first name and the kind of music she liked to play. He was a supremely happy man—a definite change from the offended one who had fled Highbury. He was now pleased with himself, cared nothing for Emma, and defied Harriet. Augusta Hawkins had a fortune of at least ten thousand pounds. Augusta had been so pleased and impressed with Mr. Elton that their friendship led quickly to an engagement. The wedding itself would be organized quickly and when Mr. Elton left for Bath again it was generally understood he would return to Highbury with his bride.

Emma had barely seen Mr. Elton during his short stay, but what she had seen made her doubt the good qualities she had initially seen in him. She hoped she would never see him again because he and his memory caused her pain. Even though he would still live in Highbury, his marriage would smooth over  their past and civility might return.

Emma did not think much of Miss Hawkins. She was good enough for Mr. Elton, was probably plain beside Harriet, and had no real status in society aside from her fortune. She was the youngest of two daughters of a Bristol merchant who had died, and now lived with her lawyer Uncle. The Uncle did not appear to have raised himself in society very far, and Emma assumed he was too stupid to do so. The connection appeared grand because of Miss Hawkins’ older sister, who had married a rich gentleman near Bristol who had two carriages. She wished that she could have given her feelings to Harriet who seemed still in love with Mr. Elton. Emma guessed that Harriet was one of those girls who would always be in love if she had felt it before. The reappearance of Mr. Elton made things worse for her, and she was always with people who found no faults in him. This made her fall in love with him even more, and regretted that she was not Miss Hawkins. If Emma had not felt responsible, she might have been amused by what was happening—sometimes Mr. Elton was favoured by Harriet, and sometimes it was Mr. Martin.

Elizabeth Martin had visited Mrs. Goddard’s a few days after their meeting at Ford’s, but Harriet had not been in. She left a kind note for Harriet. Until Mr. Elton had arrived, Harriet had been obsessed with it, and wondering what she would do. Emma decided that, to offset some of the suffering Mr. Elton was causing her, Harriet should return Elizabeth Martin’s visit. Emma would be careful about it, however. She wanted to make sure that the friendship was not renewed—she would drop Harriet off at the Abbey Mill and return for her before steps toward an intimate friendship could be made.

Harriet was not overjoyed by the prospect of her visit to the Martins. Half an hour before Emma collected her from Mrs. Goddard’s, she saw a trunk for Mr. Elton being lifted into a butcher’s cart. Her attention was solely focused on him and the trunk from then on. Emma dropped her off at the Abbey Mill, where Harriet was at once agitated by being back, and Emma went on to visit an old servant in Donwell for fifteen minutes. Emma returned to Abbey Mill and Harriet came out of the house promptly by herself. Although Harriet found it hard at first to tell her what had happened, Emma discovered that the meeting had been reserved to begin with, that only Mrs. Martin and her two daughters had been there, and they kept to general conversation. That is, until Mrs. Martin declared that Harriet seemed to have grown taller and they looked to pencilled marks on the wall by the window which Mr. Martin had made the previous summer. As soon as they started to settle into their old way of friendship, Emma had returned. Although Emma was sad that this caused so much pain for Harriet, she knew it was necessary. She decided to visit Randalls on the way home to keep Harriet from thinking too much about Mr. Martin and Mr. Elton, but on arrival discovered that the Westons were actually visiting Hartfield that moment. Emma did not know when she was last so disappointed.

The carriage stopped, and both Westons stood waiting to talk to her. They revealed that they had received a letter from Frank who would be arriving the following day and staying for two weeks. If had come at Christmas, he would have only been able to stay three days, so Mr. Weston was immensely pleased he had not. Emma looked to Mrs. Weston, who was happy, and decided if Mrs. Weston thought Frank was coming, then he must. Emma hoped Mr. Elton would not be talked about anymore. Mr. Weston promised to bring Frank to Hartfield, and then the two left. Harriet’s only question for Emma was as to whether Frank would travel through Bath on his way to Highbury.

The next day, Emma kept Mrs. Weston in her thoughts. At noon, she imagined Mrs. Weston going from room to room making sure everything was perfect. Emma hoped that Frank would be brought for a visit the following day. She opened the parlour door to find Mr. Weston and Frank sitting with Mr. Woodhouse. Mr. Weston explained that Frank had arrived a day before he was meant to, and finally Emma was face to face with him. He was a good looking man and appeared intelligent and sensible. Emma decided she would like him. He was at ease in talking to her, which suggested that he wanted to be friends with her as much as she wanted to be with him. Emma was impressed by the eagerness Frank had shown in arriving so early, and his compliments for Randalls, Highbury and Hartfield. He was terribly indulgent in their conversation, and even though Emma suspected it might be Frank’s way of getting on their side, she still admired the way he handled himself. It did not appear that he was lying or exaggerating when he spoke.

When Mr. Weston and Mr. Woodhouse were engaged in a conversation, Frank took an opportunity to compliment Mrs. Weston to Emma. He nearly complimented Emma for Mrs. Weston’s merits, even though in normal circumstances it was supposed to be the governess who formed her charge’s character, not the other way around. Frank admitted he was not expecting to find Mrs. Weston a pretty young woman. Emma suggested he should not say such things around Mrs. Weston, but Emma could not hear enough compliments for Mrs. Weston herself. Emma wondered to herself whether or not Frank had considered their possible future marriage as she had done. She had no doubt that Mr. Weston had thought of it as he continued to glance toward them with a happy face and was often listening in on their conversation. Mr. Woodhouse did not consider this for an instant, which Emma was happy about—he usually objected to every marriage he heard about, and so Emma was pleased he was not struck with any anxiety about one being arranged between them.

Mr. Weston had to leave, then, on business and suggested that Frank should stay. However, Frank gave his apologies and told them he was going to visit Jane, who he had met at Weymouth. He doubted whether or not he should visit her today, but all encouraged him to do so considering Jane was used to attention at the Campbells and barely received any while living with her Grandmother and Aunt. Frank and Mr. Weston left, then, and Emma was pleased that she could think about them being at Randalls at every hour of the day.

Frank returned to Hartfield the following morning with Mrs. Weston. Emma had not expected them, but was pleased to see them. They went for a walk for two hours around Highbury, during which Emma was satisfied with Frank’s treatment of Mrs. Weston. Frank found everything he saw of Highbury in a complimentary way. His interest in his father’s past, in particularly, proved to Emma that Mr. Knightley had not done him justice, and that it had not been his choice to put off the visit.

They stopped at the Crown Inn, which had, many years ago, had a large room built for a ballroom. It had been used for some dances, but now it was only used for a whist club. Frank wanted to have balls there once every fortnight during the winter. He wondered why Emma had not brought the room back to its former glory and organized balls—she could do anything in Highbury that she wanted to do. Emma suggested there were not enough families of consequence in the area to attend. Frank continued to argue cheerfully in defence of having dances in the future, and Emma could see none of the proud nature of Enscombe in him.

When they reached the area the Bates family lived in, Emma asked if he managed to visit them the previous day. Frank admitted that he had only intended on staying for ten minutes, but could not get away. When Mr. Weston, finding his son still there, joined him, Frank had been sitting there for 45 minutes! Frank thought Jane looked ill because she was so pale, and Emma found herself defending her. They came to Ford’s and Frank demanded to go in so he could buy something. Emma asked him if he and Jane spent much time together at Weymouth, but Frank would not tell her—it is a lady’s right to decide how well they were or weren’t acquainted. Emma is surprised he has given an answer as vague as the one Jane gave. Emma insists that Jane is so reserved that Frank could really say anything. He admits that he met her frequently that the Campbells were well liked, and they were generally all within the same circle. Emma wonders if he knows what Jane is about to become. Mrs. Weston reminds them not to talk in this way and moves away from them. After they were done with the shop, Frank asked them if they had ever heard Jane play music. Emma has often heard her play. Frank wondered what other people thought about her playing—a man who was in love with another woman would never ask anyone, but Jane to sit down and play the piano if she was nearby. Emma guesses that this man was Mr. Dixon. Emma wondered how Miss Campbell felt. Frank reminded her that Jane was her friend. Emma still felt sorry for Miss Campbell, but Frank did not think she felt it. Emma did not know if that was a good or bad thing—either she is stupid or too sweet. Emma suggested that Jane should have refused to play if Miss Campbell had not been asked, and suggests that something more was at work between them. Frank did not know what to say about their relationship—he could only comment on what he had seen. They talk about Jane’s reserved behaviour and how much it annoys both Emma and Frank—he could never love a reserved person. Emma would never be able to be close friends with Jane—she does not think poorly of her, but is suspicious of people who seem to have things to hide. Frank agreed with her, and Emma felt they were close friends despite it only being their second time together.

Emma thought he was a better man than she expected—kinder and less spoilt by his fortune. Frank would not find anything wrong with Mr. Elton’s house—if a man shared a house with the woman he loved, there would be nothing wrong with it. Mrs. Weston laughed at him and accused him of looking at it from his own spoiled past, but Emma decided this meant he was looking to settle down and marry early in life for love. It seemed to suggest he would give up Enscombe if he found someone to love.

Emma’s opinion of Frank was shaken a little the following day when she heard he had gone to London to have a hair cut. It seemed like nonsense to her, and she did not approve. It didn’t fall into her impression of him as a moderate, rational, unselfish man. This was proof of restlessness and vanity. Mrs. Weston did not like it, either, but Mr. Weston thought it was a good story. Despite this, Emma found that all of her friends thought well of Frank. Mr. Weston suggested that Frank admired Emma a great deal, which led Emma to believe she had been marked out as a possible match for Frank. Mr. Knightley was the only one who did not like Frank and thought his hair cut in London only proved how silly Frank was.

Mr. and Mrs. Weston’s visit to Hartfield brought bad news—something had happened which they wanted Emma’s advice on. The Coles, who had been in Highbury for many years, were low in society. They had kept to their means, at first, but when their wealth increased, they bought a larger house and had become second to the Hartfield house. They had thrown a few parties, but Emma did not think they would invite families above their status. Donwell and Randalls had received their invitations, but Hartfield had not. Mrs. Weston explained it away—they would not be brave enough to invite them, and they knew Mr. Woodhouse did not go out often. Emma still wanted to have the power to refuse, and felt sorry that the friends she liked so much would be attending. Even Harriet would be there!

When an invitation arrives for her, Emma accepts it purely because of their attention to her father. They had wanted to send an invitation earlier, but were waiting on a folding screen to arrive from London so that they could keep drafts away from him. Mr. Woodhouse would not go, but the Coles could come and take tea with them one day. He asks the Westons to take care of Emma while she is out and wishes that Mrs. Weston could have stayed at home with him if she had not married. This only agitated Mr. Woodhouse and Mr. Weston remained quiet until the two ladies could figure out what should be done. Mrs. Goddard would be written to and invited to the house. Mr. Woodhouse would like Emma to come home from the dinner early. Mr. Weston argues against it as it would break up the party and be offensive to their neighbours of ten years. Mr. Woodhouse agrees—she will be safe among friends and will not hurt the Coles by leaving early. Emma only fears Mr. Woodhouse staying up too late for her—he agrees to go to bed only if she eats and gets warm as soon as she arrives home.

Frank had returned with his hair cut and no shame at having gone all the way to London to have it done. Emma decides that not all silly actions mean the person carrying them out is silly. If he was, he would have been ashamed or celebrated the act. She looked forward to seeing Frank again at the Coles’ dinner, and Emma decided she would be happy, despite going to the Coles’ home.

Emma’s carriage followed Mr. Knightley’s, which she was pleased for because Mr. Knightley often refused to use his carriage. Emma complimented him on an entrance befitting a gentleman. Mr. Knightley thanked her, but commented that he wondered if she would know if he was more of a gentleman or not had she not seen him arrive. Emma suggested that Mr. Knightley usually had to pretend to be more important than he felt when he arrived without a carriage because he was ashamed, and now he had nothing to fear. Emma would be more than happy to walk into the house with him. Emma was pleased with the party—she was sat beside Frank and believed it was because he made it so.  A conversation at the dinner table catches Emma’s ear—she hears that a pianoforte had arrived at the Bates’ house. They did not know who had ordered it but assumed it couldn’t have come from anyone else but Colonel Campbell. However, Jane had received a letter from the Campbells recently, and nothing had been said about it. They assumed that it was meant as a surprise. The Coles were pleased that Jane had been given an instrument to play as they always felt it was a shame that an accomplished pianist had no piano of her own to play at home. They hoped that their own pianoforte would be played by their neighbours that evening and in particular by Emma. Emma then turned to Frank and suggested that they had the same thoughts—that they believed the pianoforte to have come from Mr. Dixon, and not from Colonel Campbell. While Frank does not know if he feels the same way, he admits that Emma’s theory that they were in love has some merit to it.

When the ladies went to the drawing room, the ladies of a lower status arrived, including Harriet. Jane Fairfax did look superior to Harriet, but Emma was sure that Jane would want to change feelings with Harriet who was glad, despite her shame, to have loved Mr. Elton. Emma did not need to approach Jane in a party this large, and kept at a distance. The subject of the pianoforte was raised, and Jane blushed with guilt when she admitted it was from Colonel Campbell. They were then joined by the gentlemen. Frank stood by Emma when he found there was no seat beside her, and Emma knew then that everyone would think she was his devoted subject, and no one else. After introducing him to Harriet, Harriet felt there was something in Frank that was like Mr. Elton, and Emma had to turn away from her in silence. After a conversation about Highbury and Enscombe, Emma is certain that Highbury is more suited to Frank. He had wished to go away and travel, but now that wish was fading. Emma was sure this was because of his visit to Highbury.

Frank regretted that his time at Highbury was almost half over. Emma wondered if he regretted spending a day having his haircut, but he did not. After Emma spends time talking to Mr. Cole, she turns to find Frank staring at Jane. She asks him what the matter is, and Frank admits he is transfixed with the way Jane has done her hair—he has never seen anything like it and must ask her immediately whether it is an Irish fashion. Emma could not watch Jane to see if she blushed because Frank stood in front of her. Mrs. Weston took his seat before Frank could return. She was longing to talk to Emma—she wonders if she has heard how Miss Bates and Jane arrived at the party. Emma assumed they walked. Mrs. Weston tells her after feeling sorry for them having to walk home on such a cold night and offering a seat in their carriage, she discovered that Mr. Knightley’s carriage had brought and would take them home again. Mrs. Weston thinks it was kind of him to do so, and that this is the only reason why he arrived in the carriage. Emma agrees. Mrs. Weston admits that another thought has entered her head—she has made a match between Mr. Knightley and Jane. Emma disagrees—Mr. Knightley cannot marry because then Isabella’s children would not be able to inherit Donwell. Mrs. Weston does not want the match either, but points out that she has always been a favourite of Mr. Knightley’s. Emma tells Mrs. Weston to avoid match-making as she is not good at it. Mrs. Weston cannot see anything wrong with the match aside from the difference in age and fortune. Mrs. Weston suggests that he  might be in love and want to give her a respectable home. Mrs. Weston suggests that the pianoforte has arrived from Mr. Knightley, and not Colonel Campbell. Emma does not think it would be him as he does nothing mysteriously. Mrs. Weston points out that Jane had complained to him on more than one occasion about her lack of an instrument. Mr. Knightley was also silent when Mrs. Cole told them about it at dinner. Emma will not believe any proof of the possibility.

They argued over it until Mrs. Cole approached them and asked Emma to try the pianoforte. Frank had found a seat next to Jane and asked Emma to play. She agreed to—she knew that her talents were limited but could sing fairly well. Frank joined her during one song to sing and was accused of having a talent for music. Frank denied this but sang once more with Emma. Emma then swapped with Jane, whose performance was most definitely superior. Frank and Jane had clearly sung together at Weymouth, but Emma was more interested in Mr. Knightley, who listened with the most attention. She did not want him to marry—little Henry must inherit Donwell. Mr. Knightley came and sat beside her, then, and they talked only of the performance. She complimented him on his kindness toward Jane and Miss Bates—he did not want to talk of his own kindness. Emma would have liked to do the same, but did not think her father would agree. Mr. Knightley is sure she would want to assist others. Emma mentions the gift of the pianoforte was a lovely one, but Mr. Knightley believes it would have been better had they told her it was coming as it would have been an inconvenience. Emma could have sworn at that moment that Mr. Knightley had not given Jane the instrument, but thought he was still attached in an odd way. When Jane’s voice grew hoarse, Mr. Knightley told her not to sing anymore. While Frank tried to persuade her otherwise, Mr. Knightley grew angry and accused him of wanting to hear his own voice. He asked Miss Bates to assist and stop her niece from singing anymore. Miss Bates put an end to all of the singing.

Everything was cleared away when the Coles suggested dancing. Mrs. Weston played for them, and Frank asked Emma to dance with him. While Frank complimented her on her talents, Emma looked around for Mr. Knightley. She knew he hated dances—if he asked Jane to dance, it would suggest something. Jane was asked by someone else, and Mr. Knightley was in conversation with Mrs. Cole. Emma did not worry anymore about little Henry—she felt his inheritance would be safe—and started to really enjoy herself. They danced two dances before they decided it was too late to go on. Frank admitted, while he helped Emma into her carriage, that he was glad for it otherwise he would have had to ask Jane to dance with him.

Emma was pleased that she had gone to the Coles’ dinner party. It gave her many pleasant memories the next day, especially considering she must have delighted the Coles themselves. However, she was uneasy when she remembered what she had said to Frank about Jane’s feelings. She should not have said anything, but was unable to stop herself. She also regretted the inferior quality of her performance compared to Jane’s. She sat down and practised for an hour and a half. Harriet interrupted her, then, and complimented her but Emma did not find comfort in it. Harriet told her what compliments people had made about Emma the previous night, but Emma finds fault in all of them—Jane is much better.

Harriet adds that she heard something from another family there, the Coxes. Emma was afraid to ask, thinking that the subject of Mr. Elton might be brought up again, but she reveals that Mr. Martin had dinner with them a week before. Miss Nash thought that either of the Coxes daughters would be glad to marry him. Emma suggests the Coxes daughters are vulgar. Harriet had business to attend to at Ford’s, so Emma went with her, fearing another meeting with the Martins. While Harriet took a long time to figure out what she wanted to buy, Emma went to the door to watch people pass. She looked down the Randalls road to see Mrs. Weston and Frank walking towards Hartfield. They stopped at the Bates’ house first and, before they could knock, saw Emma and walked toward her. They were going to the Bates’ to see and hear the new pianoforte. Frank suggested he might join Emma and Harriet and go onto Hartfield while Mrs. Weston pays her visit. Mrs. Weston was visibly disappointed. Emma suggests he should go with Mrs. Weston. Frank agrees to, but wonders what will happen if he has to lie about the quality of the instrument—he cannot tell convincing lies. Emma does not believe this—he can tell lies when he needs to, but she is certain he will not have to. Mrs. Weston and Frank return to the Bates house.

Harriet continued her indecision until Mrs. Weston and Miss Bates arrived at the shop door and asked them to come across to hear the new pianoforte. After Miss Bates rambles on, including mentioning Frank’s suggestion that Emma should come and hear the instrument, Emma tells them she would be happy to come and visit. They step out into the street. Miss Bates reveals that Mr. Knightley had visited them the other day and promised to send them more of the apples from his orchard because Jane enjoyed them.

They find Frank fixing Mrs. Bates’ spectacles, and he was happy to see Emma—even ten minutes before he had calculated she might return. Mrs. Weston is surprised he is still fixing the spectacles, but Frank insists he had other tasks to accomplish, too: he was helping Jane make the pianoforte steady on the uneven floor. Frank made Emma sit beside her and looked for the best baked apple for her to eat. Jane was not ready to play just yet, and Emma believed it was because the instrument was so new to her and made her emotional. Jane began, and the pianoforte was complimented. Frank, while smiling at Emma, agreed that Colonel Campbell or the friend he had asked to help had exceptionally good taste. Frank asked Jane if Colonel Campbell had a direct hand in finding the pianoforte, but Jane could not answer—she would only be guessing until she received a letter from Colonel Campbell. Emma whispers to Frank to stop teasing Jane—she had not meant to say anything.

Frank asks her to play something from the previous night, but Jane plays something from Weymouth. Frank remembers the tune and Jane blushes, and then plays something else. Frank points out that Colonel Campbell sent sheet music with the pianoforte because he knew she would have none with her, which Frank believes shows how much affection went into the present. Emma caught Jane smiling to herself and blushing. Jane was apparently remembering something from her past. While Jane played, Emma admitted again that she wished she had not said anything. Frank is pleased she did as he now has the ability to open her up a bit more. Frank does not think she feels bad about her past, or wrongly because she is currently playing Mr. Dixon’s favourite song.

Miss Bates saw Mr. Knightley on horseback. She decides to go into her mother’s room and call from the window to invite him in. Mr. Knightley asks after Jane and wonders if she is well. Mrs. Weston gave Emma a particular look, but Emma shook her head. Mr. Knightley then asks if he could fetch anything from Kingston while he is there. Miss Bates has nothing for him to do, but asks him to come inside. He agrees to do so for five minutes, but when he hears that Mrs. Weston and Frank are there, decides he cannot stay for even two minutes. He will call in on another day to see the pianoforte. Miss Bates compliments Frank and Emma for their dancing the previous night, and Mr. Knightley knows they are listening and agrees, but adds that Jane and Mrs. Weston should be complimented to. Miss Bates thanks him for the apples, but tells him off for sending his entire store of them. Before she can say another word, Mr. Knightley leaves.

Emma decided it must be time for her to go home. Frank and Mrs. Weston walked them to the Hartfield gates and then left for Randalls.

Frank wanted another dance. He spent the last moments of an evening at Randalls trying to persuade them all into giving another ball. Frank walked the length of the room to see how large it was—he wanted the same visitors and the same musicians to attend. Mr. Weston decided it was a great idea, Mrs. Weston would play for as long as they wanted to dance, and the rest of the people there tried to figure out how many couples could dance in the room. Five couples listed turned into ten, and they wondered if they couldn’t open the doors to two rooms and dance across the hall. Some of them thought it would be a bad idea, and Mr. Woodhouse thought it would be unhealthy. He was worried about the ladies, particularly Emma, getting a cold because of the air. The passage plan was given up, and the room they had decided was not big enough for ten, suddenly was. Emma disagreed—there would not be room enough for ten couples. Frank did not want to give the plan up—he did not want his father to be disappointed.

The next day, Frank arrived at Hartfield with an announcement. He suggests the dance be given at the Crown Inn, instead, and asks for Emma’s hand in the first two dances. Emma agrees with the plan as long as the Westons and her father agreed. Mr. Woodhouse did not understand how the Crown Inn could be safer for their health than the Randalls, and opposed the plan. Frank tells them they will not have any windows opened, which sometimes happens at parties. Mr. Woodhouse sees the plan as a better one, but still wants to discuss it in detail. Emma suggests that the Crown would be better for the horses as the stable was nearby, and Frank points out that Mrs. Weston is in charge of directing the Crown and getting it ready. Mr. Woodhouse is pleased with this because Mr. Perry approves of Mrs. Weston—she was always so careful when helping Emma with sicknesses.

Frank had left the Westons looking over the Crown space to see what might be done, and had rushed over to Hartfield to see if they would join them and offer their own advice. Emma was happy to do so. Mrs. Weston thought the wallpaper was dirty, but her husband assured her they wouldn’t see any of that by candlelight—they never saw it during their games nights. Emma and Mrs. Weston exchanged a look that seemed to say no man can see if something is dirty or not. One problem was where they would have their supper. Mrs. Weston suggested not have supper and just having sandwiches set out, but this was rejected. She wished that they could have their guests’ opinions as to what to do so they could do what was generally pleasing for all. Frank suggests calling on the Coles or for Miss Bates. Emma suggests not consulting Miss Bates as she will tell them nothing—she will only agree with whatever they have to say. Frank will not bring the entire family, and he is fond of hearing Miss Bates talk. Mrs. Weston agreed with the plan, and Frank is told to bring Jane with him.

Mrs. Weston, in the meantime, had looked into the passage and found it was not as bad a spot to have supper after all, and so all of the decisions had been made before Jane and Miss Bates returned. Frank had already written to Enscombe asking to stay beyond his original fortnight, and the rest of the elements of the party would be decided on by Mrs. Weston. When Miss Bates arrived she assumed her role as approver and agreed with everything that had been decided. Emma was secured by Frank for the first two dances, and Emma overheard Mr. Weston whisper to Mrs. Weston that he knew Frank would ask her.

Emma wanted the date for the ball to be within Frank’s original fortnight so that the Churchills did not call him back. However, this was not feasible, and they would not be able to get everything ready until the third week. Enscombe did not approve but could not say anything against Frank staying. Emma was less anxious about this element, and started to worry about Mr. Knightley’s indifference to it. He did not seem interested in it, whether because he hated dances or because everything had been decided without his help, and was not excited by it. He will not refuse the invitation, but he would rather be at home doing work. Jane Fairfax, on the other hand, was excited by the prospect of the dance. Emma was further convinced that Mr. Knightley did not care much for Jane if he did not share her feelings for the dance.

However, a letter arrived from Mrs. Churchill, demanding his presence at Enscombe immediately. She was unwell and could not do without him. She had not mentioned it before, wanting to save Frank from having to rush back, but now she needed him. Mrs. Weston wrote to Emma immediately to tell her of the letter—he had to leave in a few hours but was not worried about his Aunt. Her illnesses arose only at her own convenience. He would be stopping in at Hartfield before he went. Emma was sorry to lose Frank and the dance. That Emma had been correct in her prediction was her only consolation. Mr. Woodhouse felt strongly about Mrs. Churchill’s illness and he was happy that they would be staying safely at home. When Frank arrived at Hartfield, his sorrow was clear. Emma suggested he would be back again, but Frank did not know when he would be back. He was sorry he did not listen to Emma and have the dance immediately. Emma would have rather been wrong. She wondered if Frank had delayed in coming to Hartfield because he did not have a positive view of Highbury. Frank laughed and denied it, but Emma knew this was the reason. Frank admitted he already been in to say goodbye to the Bates house. He started to announce his love for Hartfield, and then suddenly stopped, unable to say anything else. Emma saw that he was more in love with her than she had known, and did not know what would have happened had Mr. Woodhouse not stepped into the room then. Frank would hear all about Highbury from Mrs. Weston’s letters. He then said goodbye and Emma was sorry to feel his absence.

It had been a happy fortnight for her, and she considered that she must be in love with him a little, despite her determination not to. She feels the restlessness is due to his disappearance from Highbury, and she knows others will also mourn the loss of the dance—all, that is, except for Mr. Knightley. He did not, however, appear to be happy. He was not sorry for the loss, but he was sorry for Emma’s disappointment. It was a few days before Emma saw Jane and discovered that she had been unwell, and probably wouldn’t have been able to attend the ball anyway.

Emma continued to think about her love for Frank—she wondered by how much she was in love with him. It was lovely to hear about Frank, to wait for a letter and to wonder when he might return to Highbury, but she was not unhappy. She could imagine his faults, and as she sat she thought of the way their friendship might have evolved, imagining conversations and elegant letters. The conclusion to every imaginary scenario led to her refusing him and them staying friends. She did not think she could be completely in love if she could not even imagine marrying him. Emma suspects she does not need him to be happy, and will not persuade herself to be more in love than she appears to be. Emma has no doubts that Frank is in love with her, and she must not encourage him when he returns to Hartfield. She thinks she has been let off easily—everyone is meant to be in love once in their lives, and she is happy to have it over and to have ended happily.

When Frank’s letter to Mrs. Weston arrived, Emma read it. It was a long letter detailing his journey and his feelings about it. Emma was pleased to see that her name was mentioned more than once in compliments. Frank sent his apologies to Emma’s “friend” Harriet, who is not mentioned by name. Emma is sure that this remark was meant for her more than for Harriet. Mrs. Churchill was still recovering from her illness, and Frank was unable to suggest a time when he would be back in Highbury again. Although Emma was pleased by the letter, she found it did not leave any lasting happiness with her, and she was decided that they must do without one another. She considered matching Harriet and Frank together as Frank had been struck by her beauty, but then decided against it—it would be in Harriet’s advantage, but Emma knew the dangers of speculating marriage matches.

Where Frank’s visit had meant less conversations about Mr. Elton, the reverse was now true. His wedding date to Miss Hawkins was named, and he would soon be back at Highbury with his bride. Frank was not discussed. Emma was tired of it—she had had three weeks without hearing Mr. Elton, which she hoped had helped Harriet to get over him. She had not. Harriet required comfort from Emma, but it was hard work when Harriet never seemed to get any better or change her opinions. Emma tried a different angle—she accuses Harriet of dwelling on her unhappiness and insulting Emma in the process because of her mistake. She has not forgotten it was her own doing, and she will never forget it, and Harriet must stop trying to remind her of it. Emma wants Harriet to forget for her own sake, not for Emma’s, because Emma will never forget. Emma’s appeal to Harriet’s affection for her helped considerably. Harriet felt she was ungrateful to Emma, and Emma had never loved her more. She thought Harriet’s tenderness of the heart was like her own father’s or Isabella’s. Emma does not have it herself, but she respects it in others. She thinks of Harriet as her superior in this sense, and the superior to the cold Jane Fairfax. Emma even longs for a man who might transform her from an Emma into a Harriet, knowing the value of affection and kindness, but having none herself.

Mrs. Elton was first seen at Church, but the pews were not a good viewing location, and so it was left to the formal visits to see if she was pretty or not. Emma did not want to be the last to pay her respects to the family and made sure Harriet went with her to avoid too many unpleasant moments. Emma was struck by her memories of three months before, when she entered the house to lace up her boot. She believed Harriet was remembering the same, but she behaved herself and kept quiet. They kept the visit short, and Emma found that she was so occupied by her past memories that she could not form an opinion of Mrs. Elton. She did not really like her, however, as Mrs. Elton was not elegant. Mr. Elton’s manners were awkward, but Emma forgave him for that—it must have been hard to be in the same room as his new wife, the woman he wanted to marry, and the woman he had been expected to marry.

After the visit, Harriet and Emma discuss Mrs. Elton. They both admit that she is charming and well dressed. Neither is surprised that Mr. Elton fell in love with her, but they disagree about Mrs. Elton being in love with him. Emma suggests that not all women can marry the men they love—they have to marry for a home, and take the best offer they will likely receive. Harriet admits that she will not be afraid of seeing them again as Mr. Elton being married makes everything different. She is comforted to know that he did not throw himself away and that he married someone he deserves.

When a return visit was made at Hartfield, Emma managed to talk to Mrs. Elton by herself for fifteen minutes. She decided that Mrs. Elton was a vain woman who was interested in her own importance. She wanted to be superior, but her manners were not excellent ones. Emma was convinced that Harriet would have been a better match for Mr. Elton, and that it was only the rich brother in Bristol which had enticed him into the alliance. The brother’s home in Maple Grove was compared to Hartfield—Mrs. Elton thought they were quite similar and compared the gardens and the house to the point where she could imagine she was back home. She is sure that her brother and sister will love Hartfield particularly for the extensive grounds, but Emma doubts this statement—no one with extensive grounds cares about any other household with them. Emma tells Mrs. Elton that after she has seen more of Surrey, she will have found she has overrated Hartfield. Mrs. Elton is well aware—she knows that Surrey is the garden of England. Emma reminds her that many counties claim to be the garden of England, but Mrs. Elton disagrees—she has never heard of anywhere but Surrey called this name. Emma keeps quiet.

Mrs. Elton goes on to describe the future visit her brother and sister will make, and the exploring they will do. Mrs. Elton is sure that Emma and her friends do the same thing, but Emma does not go far and insists that they are more inclined to stay at home. Mrs. Elton claims she is the same way, but does not believe people who shut themselves off from society do themselves any favours—it is better to live in moderation. Mrs. Elton suggests that taking Mr. Woodhouse to Bath might help his health and let Emma go out more often. Emma tells her Mr. Woodhouse has attempted it before with no benefit to his health and that his doctor, Mr. Perry disagrees with the place. Mrs. Elton offers to introduce Emma to the best society in Bath as she has led a secluded life. Emma could not stomach this suggestion—to be in debt to Mrs. Elton for the introduction would be undignified. Emma remained polite and thanked her, but reminded her that going to Bath was out of the question. She changed the subject quickly.

Emma and Mrs. Elton talked about music. Emma had heard Mrs. Elton was an excellent performer, but Mrs. Elton insists that she is mediocre in talent. She loves to perform, and this was the only condition that Mrs. Elton made clear to Mr. Elton before they were married—she could do without all of the pleasures and luxuries she was used to at Maple Grove except for being part of a musical society. Emma assured her they were quite musical at Highbury. Mrs. Elton is pleased and suggests that they hold small concerts and attend weekly meetings. She thinks this will help her to continue with her music, especially as married women tend to give up their musical hobbies. Emma does not think she will give it up if she loves it that much, but Mrs. Elton doubts this.

Mrs. Elton changes the subject. She has visited Randalls and thinks that Mrs. Weston is a lovely person. She is surprised, however, that she is also quite lady-like, but Emma insists that her manners have always been very good. Mrs. Elton asks her to guess who was there when they visited, but Emma had no idea. Mrs. Elton tells her they met Mr. Knightley there, whom she had been looking forward to meeting after Mr. Elton had mentioned him so often. She likes him very much. At this point, the Eltons had to leave, and Emma could finally breathe.

She could not believe Mrs. Elton had the audacity to call Mr. Knightley, “Knightley”, and this to only be their first visit. She is also insulted that Mrs. Elton was surprised to find Mr. Knightley was a gentleman and that Mrs. Weston was a gentlewoman, and that she suggested the musical club. She imagines how angry Frank would be if he was there.

Mr. Woodhouse thought she was quite a charming young lady and would make for a fine wife. He still did not think Mr. Elton should have married. He made his excuses to them for not visiting, and hoped that he would be able to in the summer. He worries that he has insulted them by not visiting the new bride before now, but Emma assures him that his apologies would be well accepted. If he does not like marriage so much, he should not pay his respects to a bride or he would be seen encouraging more people to marry. Mr. Woodhouse still believes that a bride should have attention paid to her. It is polite and has nothing to do with encouraging marriage. Emma continued to be occupied by Mrs. Elton’s insults.

On the second visit with Mrs. Elton, Emma felt secure in her opinions—she was still self important despite her little beauty and accomplishments. She thought that she had come to this country neighbourhood to improve it. Mr. Elton was proud of his wife and appeared to believe not even Emma was her equal. Emma continued to stick to her original polite compliments. Mrs. Elton’s feelings toward Emma, however, changed. She was probably offended by Emma’s reserved nature and started to draw away from her, as well. This only added to Emma’s dislike of her. Both Mrs. Elton and Mr. Elton were cruel to Harriet, and Emma only hoped that it would cure Harriet of her love. It was likely that Mr. Elton had told his wife what had happened, making sure to show himself in a better light.

Mrs. Elton did like Jane Fairfax; before Mrs. Elton stopped confiding in Emma, she admitted that she wanted to do something for Jane to bring her forward in life. Mrs. Elton did not want her talents and charm to go to waste when she becomes a governess. Emma does not understand how Mrs. Elton’s attention could be any different than that of the rest of Highbury. Mrs. Elton insists that she lives in a style which could support Jane—she will have her at her house whenever she can, introduce her to those she can, have musical parties to show off her talent and be on the look out for an eligible husband for her. Mrs. Elton has many friends, and she does not doubt hearing of someone suitable soon. Emma thought Jane did not deserve this, even if she had acted improperly around Mr. Dixon. Thankfully, Mrs. Elton’s change came soon after, and Emma did not have to listen to her talk about this again. Emma was surprised that Jane accepted Mrs. Elton’s help and attention and Emma heard of Jane spending time with them most days. Emma did not understand why Jane was still at Highbury and had not returned to the Campbells. They had decided to stay on for longer during the summer, and a new invitation had arrived for Jane, but she had declined to go. Emma feels there must be a hidden motive for refusing the invitation. Mrs. Weston explains to Emma that Jane must have accepted the Eltons as friends because it is better than her Aunt for company. Mr. Knightley agreed with this theory and added that she was capable of deciding for herself who she spent time with. Had Emma taken the time and effort to pay attention to her, Jane may not have chosen Mrs. Elton for her friend. Mr. Knightley added that Jane probably impressed Mrs. Elton by her superior mind and talent, and that she deserves the respect that Mrs. Elton gives her. Emma—suddenly afraid for Henry’s inheritance again—tells Mr. Knightley she knows how highly he thinks of her and that his admiration for her might take him by surprise one day. Mr. Knightley tells Emma she is far behind in her theories—Mr. Cole suggested it over a month ago. Even if Mr. Knightley asked Miss Fairfax, she would not have him, and he will not ask her. He realizes that Emma has been matching him with Jane, but Emma denies it. She would never take that kind of liberty with him and did not want him to marry anyone. Mr. Knightley assures her he has never thought of Jane in that way—she does not have the open temper which he wished for in a wife. Jane has feelings, but she is too reserved and cold. When Mr. Knightley left them, Emma asked what Mrs. Weston had to say about her theory about them being in love. Mrs. Weston does not think she has been beaten yet as he might be opposing the idea so much that he might actually be in love with her after all.

Everyone who had ever visited Mr. Elton before had to give him attention for his marriage. There were dinners and parties given for him and his new wife, and Mrs. Elton thought she would never have a day without something to do. She was used to going to dinners and parties because of her past at Bath and Maple Grove, and she corrected all the little mistakes some of the neighbours in Highbury made in their arrangements. Emma would not be satisfied until she gave a dinner at Hartfield for the Eltons because she did not want to be insulting them. Mr. Woodhouse agreed to it. Emma invited Harriet, but she begged not to attend. She did not want to see Mr. Elton happy with his wife and would rather stay at home. Emma was secretly pleased because she actually wanted to have Jane as her last dinner party guest, especially considering the last conversation she had had with Mr. Knightley about her. She wanted to show her the attention Mr. Knightley thought Emma should give her. Emma was sad that she did not try and be friends with Jane because it was expected of her. She did not think that Jane would accept her as a friend now, but Emma would still show her attention.

However, they received word that Mr. John Knightley would be visiting the day of the party. Although Mr. Woodhouse was anxious about a ninth person being at the dinner, Emma comforted him. As it happened, Mr. Weston was called out of town on business and would not be able to attend the dinner. Mr. John Knightley talked with Jane for a while and did not pay much attention to Mrs. Elton, except to take in enough detail to relay to Isabella when he returned home. He criticizes Jane for walking in the rain to collect letters. Jane expresses the value of friendship, especially those who were not near her and probably never would be, and so she must walk to the post-office no matter what the weather is doing. Mr. John Knightley suggests that, in ten years, she will have people she cares about in her more immediate circle and will not have to keep walking to collect her letters. Jane is a little tearful and grateful to him for saying so. Mr. Woodhouse interjected then and insisted young ladies should take better care of themselves. Mrs. Elton was then interested in this conversation about Jane walking in the rain, and was upset that she was not there to take care of her. Jane insisted she had not caught a cold, but Mrs. Elton told her off for not being able to take care of herself. Mrs. Weston agreed: Jane must not take risks or she might bring her cough on again. Mrs. Elton suggests that they will get one of their servants to collect her letters to stop Jane from having to fetch them, but Jane has been told to walk outside every day. She refuses to accept Mrs. Elton’s help because she likes walking to the post-office.

Jane changes the subject slightly and talks to Mr. John Knightley about the advantages of the post-office. She is fascinated that they rarely lose a letter. The conversation then moved onto the observations of handwriting. Mr. John Knightley believed that the handwriting of a family or close relations were often the same. Isabella and Emma’s handwriting are similar, for example. Everyone, including Mr. Knightley, agreed that Emma’s handwriting was lovely. Emma praised Frank’s handwriting, then, which Mr. Knightley disagreed with—he thought Frank wrote like a woman. Emma and Mrs. Weston disagree and wish they had a sample of writing to prove it to Mr. Knightley. Mr. Knightley jokes that a man like Frank would always use his best handwriting when writing to someone like Emma.

Emma was curious that Jane had refused help fetching her letters. She suspected that Jane had received a letter that had cheered or excited her because she seemed happier. She could have asked Jane a question about the speed of the Irish post, but she decided not to in case she would hurt Jane’s feelings.

When the ladies returned to the drawing room, two parties formed. She and Mrs. Weston talked together and Mrs. Elton drew Jane away. Emma did not want to talk to Mrs. Elton and Jane was engrossed by her attention. The post office situation was talked over again, and then Mrs. Elton asked if she had heard of a governesses position yet. Jane has not made any enquiries yet because she has not fixed on a month for her to be employed. Mrs. Elton suggested that it would be more difficult if she left  it so late, but Jane is well aware. Mrs. Elton does not think she is—she has seen more of the world than Jane has done. Jane wants to spend more time with Colonel and Mrs. Campbell when they return to town mid-summer, and then she will make her own enquiries. She does not want Mrs. Elton to do anything on her behalf. Mrs. Elton insists that she write to her friends, and Jane continues to refuse. She will find something when she wants to. Mrs. Elton is worried she will not find a position worthy of her talents and accuses Jane of being modest.

Later on, when the men stepped into the drawing room, Emma overheard Mrs. Elton speak to Jane about Mr. Woodhouse. She admires his old fashioned manners and politeness and wishes Jane could have heard all of the compliments she received from him during the dinner. Just then, Mr. Weston returned from his business trip out of town, and everyone was generally pleased to see him. Mr. John Knightley was amazed that he would come to Hartfield when he could be at home out of the cold and in bed. His arrival at the party would lengthen it considerably. He was happy, and after making his compliments to everyone, he gave Mrs. Weston a letter, which they had just received. He asks her to read it to Emma. It is from Frank. He will be travelling close to Highbury the following week with the rest of the family and will split his time between the two places. Mrs. Weston was happy as she should be. Emma did not know how she felt about this. Mr. Weston went around the room to tell other people the news, and finding that Mrs. Elton was not currently talking to anyone, started with her first.

Mr. Weston expressed his hope that he would be able to introduce Frank to Mrs. Elton soon. They begin a rambling conversation wherein Mrs. Elton chastises Mr. Weston for opening his wife’s letters. They discuss the distance of Enscombe to London, and although Mrs. Elton thinks it is extraordinarily far, she does not think travelling distances truly matters to people of large fortunes. Mr. Weston tells her that Mrs. Churchill had been so weak that she had been unable to move for a week. She will only stop for two days on the road. Mrs. Elton agreed with this decision—sleeping in an inn is quite horrific for many ladies. Mr. Weston does not believe Mrs. Churchill is actually ill and that she has actually grown tired of being at Enscombe instead. Mrs. Elton hopes that when Frank returns he will be pleased to find an addition to Highbury, and she suggests that he would have never heard of her. Mr. Weston indulges this call for a compliment: Mrs. Weston has often written about Mrs. Elton to Frank. While Mrs. Elton continues to fish for compliments, Mr. Weston tries to tell her about Frank’s journey and Mrs. Churchill. He is looking forward to Frank being there for the nicer weather. He adds that he hopes Mrs. Elton is aware of his past history with Mrs. Churchill and that this informs his general attitude about her. He hopes he has not treated her too poorly. Instead of commenting on Mrs. Churchill, Mrs. Elton once again brings up Maple Grove and the people she disliked there.

Thankfully, they were interrupted by tea and Mr. Weston escaped her. While some of them played cards, Mr. John Knightley went over the plans for his two oldest sons while they stayed at Hartfield. Emma promises to do everything she can to make them happy. Mr. John Knightley wonders if they will get in her way, especially considering that her social life seemed to have picked up. Emma denies that there has been a difference, but Mr. John Knightley thinks she is much more involved in Highbury society than she has ever been. Although he suggests that the boys should be sent back home if they get in the way, Mr. Knightley opposes this—he would rather the boys be sent to him. Emma denies her social life has increased—it might seem that way because of discussions of dances that never happened, but it is not true. She always has time for her nephews—much more than Mr. Knightley had because of his business.

Emma figured out why she was agitated by the news of Frank returning. It was out of embarrassment for him because her attachment to him had disappeared. If Frank’s attachment had not cooled either, there would be some awkward times ahead for her. She would need to be cautious. She wanted to keep him from declaring his feelings for her outright, but she felt like the Spring would not pass before something substantial would happen to alter her peaceful state.

When Frank finally arrived at Hartfield, Emma immediately noticed that his treatment of her had altered considerably, and he was not as in love with her has he had been before he left. He was friendly and happy as he always was. They talked about old stories from his previous visit. He was restless and could only stay for a moment to visit other friends in Highbury. Emma considered that his restlessness might be due to his disinclination to trust himself around her. This had been the only visit he made to Hartfield in ten days. He had continued to hope to come, but he was always prevented from doing so—Mrs Churchill could not spare him. Frank admitted that she was weak and sicker than she had been half a year before and needed his attention. London was not for Mrs. Churchill, and they soon heard that they would move on to Richmond.

Frank wrote to the Westons and expressed his happiness. He would be much closer to Highbury and could visit more often. Emma thought Mr. Weston expected an engagement to bring him happiness before too long. She hoped she was wrong. Another good thing about this new arrangement was the ball at the Crown. Preparation for it began again. Frank wrote from Richmond to tell them his Aunt was improved, and he would be able to join them for the ball. Mr. Woodhouse felt it was a better idea to hold the ball in May than in February and could not complain as much about it. Mrs. Bates would spend the night with Mr. Woodhouse, and he hoped that neither of the Knightley boys would need anything while Emma was out for the evening.

Nothing prevented the ball from happening this time. Frank arrived at Randalls in time for the ball, and everything was set. Emma and Frank had not had a second meeting before the ball, but Emma thought it would be best to have this meeting without a crowd around them. Mr. Weston had asked her to arrive at the Crown before anyone else to make sure everything was set, and so she had some quiet time with Frank before the ball. When she arrived other carriages of close family friends and cousins had arrived to also give their opinion on the Crown’s Inn space. Emma thought half the party might have been invited to do the same task.

Frank was curious to meet Mrs. Elton. Emma wanted to know what his first opinion of her might be. The Eltons carriage had returned to fetch Miss Bates and Jane, and at the first sign of rain, Frank went outside to help them inside. Mrs. Elton took the time to compliment Mr. Weston on his son. She did not wait long enough for Frank to be out of earshot, however. When Mrs. Elton changed the subject to that of Maple Grove, Mr. Weston suddenly remembered that there were women who needed help and hurried away. Mrs. Elton expressed her pleasure to Mrs. Weston at being able to help friends with her own carriage, and insisted that the Westons would not need to offer their own carriage again. She will always take care of them. Miss Bates arrived in the room and started to, almost without taking a breath, speak incessantly. She was pleased with everything she saw in the Crown and delighted to see everyone. She reveals that she forced Jane to wear a shawl that Mr. Dixon had chosen for her. She expressed her gratitude for Frank’s kindness in not only helping with her mother’s spectacles, but also for helping them inside the inn.

Emma and Frank stood together then and overheard Mrs. Elton and Jane talk. After Mrs. Elton gave Jane many compliments, Mrs. Elton then pushed for compliments of her own. She mentions that she had heard Frank is a fabulous dancer and intends to find out for himself. Frank started to talk loudly, then, and Emma imagined it was because he did not want to hear any more. Emma whispered to him and asked if he liked Mrs. Elton. He did not. Still in an odd mood, Frank ran off to find his father to find out when the dancing was to begin. The Westons returned to Emma—they had realized that they would have to ask Mrs. Elton to start the dancing despite them wanting to give Emma that honour. Mr. Weston wondered what they would do for a partner—she is likely to want Frank for a partner. Frank turned to Emma then and boasted that he was already taken, which Mr. Weston was pleased for. Mrs. Weston talked her husband into dancing with Mrs. Elton, which he agreed to. They started the ball and Emma and Frank danced second. Emma was sad that she had to stand second to Mrs. Elton as she had always thought of the ball as hers.

Emma was not happy with Mr. Knightley, who was not dancing and standing at the side talking. He stood out among the other men as a striking gentleman, and she guessed that he would be a graceful dancer. During the last two dances, Harriet had no partner. Neither had Mr. Elton, but Emma was sure he would not ask her to dance. He walked close to her and asked Mrs. Weston to dance. She declined on account of there being others who would make a better partner for him. She points out that Harriet has no partner and Mr. Elton changes his mind about dancing altogether. He announces he is a married man and cannot dance anymore. Mrs. Weston and Emma were shocked. Mr. Elton returned to his seat near Mr. Knightley, and he exchanged a smile with his wife. Emma looked away, and then looked back again to find Mr. Knightley leading Harriet onto the dance floor. She was grateful to him. Mr. Elton had retreated into the card room, probably because he felt foolish.

Emma had no chance to talk to Mr. Knightley until after supper, where she thanked him for his kindness to Harriet. He asked Emma why the Eltons were her enemies as he could see that they aimed to hurt more than Harriet. Emma confesses that she wanted Mr. Elton to marry Harriet, and that neither of them can forgive her for it. Emma admits she was completely wrong about Mr. Elton. Mr. Knightley had described him fairly perfectly. Mr. Knightley admits she had chosen better for him than he has chosen for himself as Harriet has more good qualities than Mrs. Elton does. Emma was grateful for his admission. Mr. Knightley wondered who Emma would dance with next. She asks him to dance, and he agrees.

Emma was glad she and Mr. Knightley had come to an understanding of the Eltons. His praise of Harriet was also welcomed. The rudeness of the Eltons had actually invited in a moment that gave Emma utter satisfaction. Harriet was suddenly able to see that Mr. Elton was not the man she thought he was. Her infatuation was over, and Emma was not afraid of it returning. She did not expect to see Frank that day, and she was not sorry for it. However, he turns up with Harriet on his arm. She is pale and faints in the hall. After a few moments, Emma discovered why she had fainted. Harriet and Miss Bickerton, who worked alongside Mrs. Goddard, had walked together and come across gypsies. A child came towards them to beg for money and Miss Bickerton screamed and ran up a steep hill to take a short cut back to Highbury. Harriet could not follow because she was still sore from dancing. Harriet was approached by half a dozen children. She gave them a shilling and asked them not to beg for anything else. She was then able to walk, but was still surrounded by the children who demanded more from her.

Frank had found her in this way and assisted her. The group were frightened by Frank and Harriet clung to him, unable to speak, and weak. He did not know where else to take her but Hartfield. Emma assured him she would take good care of him, and then he left to carry out the errands he had been meaning to complete. She would also write to Mr. Knightley about the gypsies being in the neighbourhood. Emma wondered who could have failed to see what she saw in this adventure—her imagination was on fire concerning the possible match between Harriet and Frank.

Emma wanted to keep this news from her father but within half hour the entirety of Highbury knew the story. Mr. Woodhouse discovered the news and made them promise not to go beyond the grounds again. The gypsies took off and left Highbury, and the importance of the event dwindled in people’s minds. All, that is, except for little Henry and John who continued to ask Emma to tell the story of Harriet and the gypsies.

A few days passed. Harriet visited Emma one morning with a small parcel in her hand. She admitted she had something to confess. Harriet admits that she sees nothing extraordinary in Mr. Elton now and does not care if she meets him or not. She would rather not see him, but she does not envy his wife anymore. She has brought items she wishes she had destroyed before so that she can do so in front of Emma. They are not gifts from him, but they are things she has treasured.

She shows Emma a piece of court-plaster (bandages) which she given to Mr. Elton when he cut himself on Emma’s new penknife. Emma had denied she had had any on her when it had happened, but she admits to Harriet that it was another one of her tricks. She wanted Harriet to be the one to help Mr. Elton. Emma is ashamed by the memory. She then shows him a blunted pencil which he had left on the table when he discovered there was no more lead in it. Harriet took it for herself. Harriet has nothing more to show Emma and resolves to throw the items in the fire, even if the plaster could be useful in the future. She does not want to look at them anymore. Harriet resolves that this is the end of Mr. Elton. Emma wondered when the beginning of Frank would come.

One day, when advising Harriet of what she should do when she gets married, Harriet announces that she will never marry. Emma is surprised by this change of heart and hopes it is not because of Mr. Elton. Harriet denies that it is. Emma wondered if she should push for more information because it might have hurt her, but decides it would be safer to know what is happening. She asks Harriet directly if her decision not to marry stems from her love for someone who is far superior to her and would probably never think of her. Harriet admits it is. Emma is not surprised considering the aid he gave her. Harriet admits when she saw him coming she changed from misery to happiness. Emma thinks it is natural and honourable to feel so well. She does not encourage Harriet to think she will be asked, but does not think she should throw her feelings away. She should watch him and let his behaviour to her be her guide. Emma will not speak to her again about this because she is determined to not influence her. She does not even want to know the name of the person, but knows it is Frank. Harriet kisses her hand in gratitude and Emma thinks that the attachment would be a good thing for Harriet and raise her in society.

June came to Highbury, but not much change occurred. Jane delayed her return to the Campbells by a couple of more months. That is, if she managed to avoid Mrs. Elton finding a job for her by then. Mr. Knightley, who had taken a dislike to Frank from the outset, had started to dislike him even more. He thought there was something going on. While he seemed to be doting on Emma and fixing on her as his possible partner, Mr. Knightley suspected that he had an understanding with Jane. He thought that they both admired one another. He had seen them give looks to one another which seemed out of place and suggested a secret understanding.

Mr. Knightley walked with Emma and Harriet one day and joined with Mr. and Mrs. Weston, Frank, Miss Bates and Jane who all then decided to go back to Hartfield to take tea. Everyone agreed to it. As they approached the house, Mr. Perry passed them, and Frank asked Mrs. Weston about Mr. Perry’s carriage. Mrs. Weston does not know what he is talking about, and Frank insists that she wrote to him about it. Mrs. Weston denies talking to him about Mr. Perry buying a carriage. Frank concludes he must have been dreaming about Highbury, as he often does. Mr. Weston turned to ask Emma if she was as a great a dreamer as Frank, but she had gone ahead and was already out of hearing. Miss Bates does remember, however, that there was talk of Mr. Perry buying a carriage but that the conversation was a secret one and had gone on at the Bates house. Jane was present. Mr. Knightley suspected that Frank was trying to catch Jane’s eye and watched them closely as they entered the hall.

Frank asked Emma if her nephews had put away their box of letters. He would like to play with puzzles. They started to form words for one another. Frank placed a word down for Jane and she looked at it to figure out what it was. Mr. Knightley tried to see what the word was, but could not before Jane figured it out and pushed it away. It was not mixed in with the rest of the words and Harriet looked at it to try and figure out what it was. The word was “blunder”, and Jane blushed when it was figured out. Mr. Knightley decided that there was a definite connection between Jane and Frank and continued to observe them. Frank placed a word down for Emma and on figuring out chastises him and sends it over to Jane. The word is “Dixon”. Jane looks away in disgust and blushed. She pushed away the words angrily and turned to her Aunt who immediately decided they should leave. As Jane stood, others stood with her and Mr. Knightley saw that Frank had pushed another collection of letters toward Jane.

Mr. Knightley remained at Hartfield after the rest had left and decided he would ask Emma what the last word meant. Emma brushed it away, but Mr. Knightley hoped she would tell him. However, he owed it to Emma to step in. He asked her if she understood the nature of the relationship between Frank and Jane. Mr. Knightley admits he has frequently seen looks that suggested an attachment between them. Emma was pleased that Mr. Knightley’s imagination was wandering, but Emma did not believe there was any attachment between them. She explains that there is a different set of circumstances that have led to these looks, but not for admiration. She knows that Frank is not attracted to her. This confidence in her answer silenced Mr. Knightley. Although Emma wanted to continue talking about what Mr. Knightley had seen, he was too agitated to continue and left.

Mrs. Elton was disappointed to hear that her brother-in-law and sister, Mr and Mrs. Suckling, would not be able to visit until the Autumn. It meant the delay of pleasure and of parading them around to feel her own self importance, but she was convinced with a little persuasion to explore the area around Highbury herself and not to wait for the Sucklings. She decided to go to Box Hill. Emma had never been to Box Hill before, and the Westons decided that they would go with her. She was upset to hear that Mr. Weston had proposed to Mrs. Elton that they go as one company of people. To save Mr. Weston’s feelings, Emma agreed to it even if it meant feeling the degradation of being part of Mrs. Elton’s party. While they were looking to fix the date, a horse was suddenly lame, and they did not know when the horse would be useful to them again. Mr. Knightley suggested that they should come to Donwell and eat the strawberries in his field. They would not need horses to explore Donwell. While Mrs. Elton wants to plan the party herself and invite those she would like to be there, Mr. Knightley is firm with her. Only one person could dictate to him who would be invited to Donwell and that it is the non-existent Mrs. Knightley. Mrs. Elton thought he had great humour and complimented him on it. She suggested the way that the party should be arranged, and Mr. Knightley refused to let her dictate to him, especially because he wanted to make sure Mr. Woodhouse would attend. Mr. Woodhouse would attend, as would Harriet and Emma, the Westons, the Eltons and Frank. The lame horse recovered quite quickly, so Donwell was decided for one day, and Box Hill for the following.

As soon as Emma made sure her father was sat in comfort, Emma decided to explore Donwell as it had been some time since she had been there. She enjoys the grounds and the house and respected everything she saw. Frank had yet to arrive. Mrs. Elton led them through the garden, talking loudly about the fruit. Mrs. Weston was worried about Frank. After the tour around the garden, Emma sat down in the shade and overheard Mrs. Elton and Jane talking about a governess position Mrs. Elton has managed to hear about. While Mrs. Elton wanted to establish Jane there immediately, Jane continued to protest and would not take a position until she wanted to take one. Emma felt sorry for Jane, who had to repeat herself over and over, until Jane asked Mr. Knightley to show them the entire garden.

As they walked around the garden, Mr. Knightley and Harriet walked together talking. Emma was pleased to see them together, even if it was an unusual sight. With the tour around the gardens over, they went inside the house to eat. Frank had still not arrived. Mr. Weston would not admit to his anxiety, but Mrs. Weston continued to look, worried about his horse. Mr. Weston suggested that Mrs. Churchill might have taken ill. After they had eaten, Emma opted to stay behind with her father while the rest continued to walk. It gave Mrs. Weston a break. Mr. Knightley had been kind to her father and made sure that he had endless things to distract him with. After Emma and Mr. Woodhouse looked them over together, she stepped into the hall for a moment of peace. Jane came up to her from the garden and asked her to give her apologies. She was determined to leave immediately but did not want to say anything to anyone. Emma agreed to give her goodbyes, but was not at ease with Jane walking back to Highbury by herself. Jane begs her to let her go—she wants her own way. Emma could not oppose that. Before she left, Jane exclaimed that she was comforted by solitude sometimes, and Emma felt sorry that she had to deal with so many tiresome people.

Jane had not been gone fifteen minutes when Frank stepped into the room. Mrs. Churchill had delayed him with a seizure which had lasted hours. He had come in the heat and looked worse for wear. He had an angry temper which Emma guessed was brought on by the heat. Once he had cooled down, his manners returned and was able to engage them in conversation. They were looking at pictures of Switzerland. Frank announces that he will go abroad as soon as his Aunt is well. Emma does not believe his Aunt and Uncle will ever let him leave England. Frank thinks that they will come with him as his Aunt is meant to stick to a warmer climate. He is tired of doing nothing and is sick of England. Emma asks him to come with them to Box Hill the next day—it might not be Switzerland, but it will be a change from the regular pace of life. Frank does not want to—he will leave Donwell that evening and not return. He worries about being angry and spoiling the mood, but he will be angry if they are all at Box Hill without him. Emma tells him to decide for himself.

As everyone parted, Frank expressed his decision to stay and go with them to Box Hill the following day.

The weather was good for their visit to Box Hill, and it was generally agreed and expected that they would have a nice party. However, the party split up—the Eltons walked together, Mr. Knightley with Miss Bates and Jane, and Emma and Harriet with Frank. Mr. Weston tried to bring them all together, but it never quite happened. The Eltons did not want to be friendly. Emma was bored. Frank was silent, and when he did speak said nothing worth hearing. Harriet was the same, and Emma was tired of them both. When they sat down, Frank became more talkative and made sure to amuse Emma. Although they flirted, Emma only did this because she was disappointed by the party and only thought of him as her friend. Frank thanks her for persuading him to come to Box Hill. Emma mentions his temper the previous day, which Frank does not really understand. He was hot, not angry. Emma suggests that he was not himself, and now he is back under control. Frank suggests that she means her control, but Emma insists that they are not together all the time. It can only be his control. Frank questions this logic—they’ve been together since February. Emma suggests that he stop talking in this way as the rest of the party can hear them. Frank is not ashamed by what he has to say. He decides they should get the rest of the people to talk and pretends that Emma has asked him to order them to tell her what she is thinking about. Mr. Knightley asks if Emma seriously wants to know, and she denies it. She really does not want to know what they have to think. Mrs. Elton takes Frank’s interest in Emma as an  insult—she thinks of herself as the Chaperone and organizer of the party, not Emma.

Frank decides to push for further conversation by asking for one clever thing, two moderately clever or three dull things from each person. Miss Bates decides to aim for three dull things, and Emma teases her by telling her she has to keep to the certain number. Miss Bates blushed when she understood the insult and confided in Mr. Knightley that she did not know what she had done to be treated so poorly. Mr. Weston asks Emma what two letters of the alphabet express perfection. He tells them that these are M and A—Em and Ma. While Emma and a few others are entertained by this, Mr. Knightley looked quite sad—no one would be able to combat Mr. Weston’s entertainment. Mrs. Elton does not even approve of the game itself—she believes it is more suited to Christmas around the fire. She tells Frank to pass herself, Mr. Elton, Knightley and Jane as they have nothing to say. Mr. Elton agrees—there is nothing that can entertain a young lady when it comes from an old married man. The Eltons leave for a walk. Frank comments that having known each other for only a few weeks in Bath, they are particularly suited. He goes on to say that it is difficult to know a woman until they are seen within their own homes and neighbourhoods. It is often that a man has committed to a woman after a short friendship and done poorly. Jane admits that it happens, but not as often as Frank suggests. There would be time to recover from it afterwards. Frank does not think he has good judgement and suggests he will have to have his future bride chosen for him. He asks if Emma would choose a wife for him, take her under her wing and make her like herself. Frank will go abroad for a few years and then return for his wife. She secretly thought that it was Harriet whom Frank suggested she should make more like herself.

After another walk, the party waited for their carriages. Mr. Knightley found a moment to speak to Emma quietly and asked why she was so unkind to Miss Bates. Emma laughed it off and suggested Miss Bates did not understand her. Mr. Knightley assured her she understood and has talked of nothing since. She was generous to Emma in her discussions. Emma thought she was a good person, but a ridiculous one. Mr. Knightley does not disagree with this, but implores Emma to think. Miss Bates is poor, and her situation in life should secure Emma’s compassion. To laugh at her and humble her in front of her niece and others who might be guided by Emma’s treatment of her was in poor show. Emma has never felt so ashamed and upset in her entire life. She could not disagree with anything Mr. Knightley had said, and did not know how she could have been so cruel to Miss Bates. Emma cried all the way home.

Emma looked back on Box Hill as a morning not well spent. She imagined that the others would be having their own particular opinions about the morning themselves. She spent the evening playing games with her father, which was time well spent and a pleasure to her. She was giving up her hours to the comfort of her father, and hoped that she was not without heart in their relationship. Emma hoped that Miss Bates would forgive her. She would visit her the next morning and attempt to start up a more equal and kinder friendship.

The following morning she went early to stop anything from preventing her. She would not be ashamed by going. When she arrived there was a rush to move Jane, who Emma caught a glimpse of and thought she looked quite sick. Mrs. Bates admitted that Jane was quite unwell, but they would only tell her otherwise. Miss Bates stepped into the room, and although she greeted Emma with her usual cheerfulness, Emma could tell there was a lack of feeling in it. She asked after Jane, which Emma hoped would lead them to their old ways. Miss Bates reveals that a position has been found for Jane which she has accepted. Jane is depressed by it, and Miss Bates sent her to bed. Jane did not want to see anyone, but she was sorry to miss Emma. Emma was terribly sorry for Jane—she had grown interested in her lately because of her increasing kindness to Jane, and she understood Jane’s wish to not see anyone. Miss Bates said, then, that Emma was always too kind, and Emma could not stand it. She asked where Jane would be going. She is off to Mrs. Smallridge’s, which is only four miles away from Maple Grove. Emma understood that Mrs. Elton had been the one to arrange it all. Miss Bates revealed that Mrs. Elton would not take a single one of Jane’s objections and did not write her denial to Mrs. Smallridge. The previous evening, Jane had taken Mrs. Elton aside and announced that she had decided to accept. Emma asked if she spent the entire evening with the Eltons—Miss Bates admitted she had been invited back with everyone else at Box Hill. Mr. Knightley refused to go, but Miss Bates, Jane and Mrs. Bates all attended. Emma suggested that Jane had been trying to make up her mind the entire day. Miss Bates agreed. Emma asked when Jane was set to leave. She would leave within two weeks as Mrs. Smallridge is in a hurry for a governess. Miss Bates reveals that Mr. Elton had heard a carriage was sent to Randalls to take Frank to Richmond. Emma did not have a chance to say that she had not heard this news, but as Miss Bates did not know anything else, it wasn’t important to say so. Frank had received a letter from Mr. Churchill telling his nephew not to rush back as Mrs. Churchill was doing fairly well, but Frank decided to go home immediately. Emma did not know what to think about this sudden change in behaviour and kept quiet until Miss Bates thought she was thinking of the pianoforte. Jane will leave it behind until Colonel Campbell comes back and deals with it himself. The discussion of the pianoforte only reminded Emma of her past tricks and amusements until she decided she had to leave. Emma gave her good wishes and then left.

On returning to Hartfield, Emma found Mr. Knightley and Harriet had arrived and were sitting with Mr. Woodhouse. Mr. Knightley immediately stood and said goodbye. He was going to London to spend time with John and Isabella. Emma did not think Mr. Knightley had forgiven her as he was not acting like himself. She thought with time they would return to normal. Mr. Woodhouse asked after Emma’s visit to the Bates’ and thinks that she was kind to them. Emma blushed and shook her head. Mr. Knightley looked at her then with respect, and Emma was grateful for it. Mr. Knightley took her hand and was about to carry it to his lips when he suddenly dropped it. Emma did not know what made him change his mind. He then left.

Emma wished she had left the Bates house ten minutes earlier so that she could have discussed Jane’s news and situation with Mr. Knightley. She also would have preferred having more notice of Mr. Knightley’s journey. She distracted her father from worrying about Mr. Knightley on horseback with news of Jane’s position. Mr. Woodhouse was darned glad she had a job.

The following day, they received news that Mrs. Churchill had died. Although Frank had not had need to hurry back, she had not lasted more than 36 hours after he returned. Of course, everyone felt sorry that she had died despite being disliked for 25 years. Now that she had died, everyone admitted that she must have been quite ill after all. Emma wondered how this might affect Frank—how it would free him. He could now marry Harriet without any issues, but Emma was not certain that the attachment would be formed. Harriet behaved herself—if she had any brighter hopes, she did not reveal them. Emma was pleased that she was much stronger in character now than she had been. Randalls received short letters from Frank detailing the plans they had. After the funeral, Mr. Churchill and Frank would go to a friend’s house in Windsor.

Emma found her concerns moving from Harriet to Jane, who Emma wanted to show kindness to. She regretted her coldness to Jane in the past and wanted to be useful to her. She wrote a letter inviting Jane to Hartfield for a day, but Jane did not reply. Mr. Perry relayed a verbal message to them that Jane was too unwell to write. He doubted that she would be able to leave for Mrs. Smallridge’s when she was meant to do so as her health was bad. Mr. Perry was worried about Jane’s current living conditions  with her tiresome family and the single room. Emma sent her another note to offer to call on Jane whenever she wanted to take some exercise. Emma received a note telling her that Jane was not able to exercise. Emma felt she deserved a little more than this short statement, but could not feel that bad about it. She ordered the carriage and went down to the Bates house to see if Jane could be enticed outside, but Miss Bates came to the door and admitted she had tried, but Jane would not come out, and would not accept any visitors. Mrs. Elton, Mrs. Cole and Mr. Perry had all forced their way in and had visited, but Emma did not want to be compared with them. She only asked Miss Bates if she might be able to help with Jane’s appetite.

Emma returned to Hartfield and asked for some arrow-root to be sent to Miss Bates for Jane. It was returned half hour later with a note explaining that Jane did not want anything. Emma heard that that afternoon Jane had been walking in the meadows. This was more than enough evidence that Jane did not want Emma’s help at all. She was sorry for this and felt powerless. The only consoling feeling was that she knew her intentions were good ones, and at least Mr. Knightley would have been proud of her.

One morning Emma was called downstairs by Mr. Weston who needed to talk to her immediately. Mrs. Weston needed to see her and wanted her to come to Randalls alone. Emma pushed for more information as to what was wrong, but Mr. Weston assured her she would know in time. After checking in with Mr. Woodhouse, she left with Mr. Weston. Emma demanded to know what was happening and was terrified that something bad had happened to someone they know. Mr. Weston will not tell her, but assures her it is nothing connected with anyone named Knightley. He reveals that Frank had visited that morning and was on his way to Windsor—Emma would not be able to see him.

Once she arrived, Mr. Weston left the two women by themselves. Emma was anxious as Mrs. Weston looked ill. Mrs. Weston wondered if Emma had any idea who the news concerned. Emma guessed it had to do with Frank, and she is correct. He came to Randalls that morning to announce his engagement to Jane Fairfax and to reveal he had been engaged to her for a long time. Emma was surprised by the news, but Mrs. Weston assured her it was the truth. They had been engaged since they spent time together at Weymouth and had kept it a secret from everyone. Mrs. Weston thought she knew him. Emma thought about her previous conversations with Jane, and also about poor Harriet. Mrs. Weston admits it has hurt them both. Emma thought for a moment and then told her that he had not revealed his intentions toward Emma, if that was what they were afraid of. There was, she admitted, a small amount of time where she was interested in him, but this left her after a moment. She cares nothing for him. Mrs. Weston is struck with joy immediately—she is relieved. They had hoped that Emma and Frank would be engaged and were upset to think what Emma would feel when she heard the news. However, Emma agrees that Frank’s behaviour could not be excused. He came to Highbury and endeavoured to please Emma—how would he know if Emma had fallen in love with him or not. She did not know how Jane stomached Frank’s behaviour either. She could not respect him for that. Mrs. Weston admitted that there had been some misunderstandings between them because of Frank’s behaviour. Emma suddenly remembers that Jane is meant to go to Mrs. Smallridge’s. Mrs. Weston assures her Frank had no idea that Jane had agreed to go. The discovery of this decision is what forced him to come forward and announce the engagement. He promised before he left, to write to Mrs. Weston and to detail everything that had happened, which may excuse some of his past behaviour.  She asks for Emma’s patience.

Emma wondered if the Dixons or Campbells knew of the engagement. Frank told her that only they knew about their agreement. Although Emma hopes they will be happy, she will not be able to forgive Frank for his deceit. Mr. Weston appeared, then, and Emma congratulated him on the news. He realized that everything was fine with Emma. He was happy immediately. When he walked her back to Hartfield, he even admitted that it was probably one of the best things Frank could have done.

Emma was sorry to think of poor Harriet, and could not stop thinking about her. She could not forgive Frank for his behaviour, and she could also not forgive herself. To find Harriet deceived a second time because of her own misconceptions was a horrid business. She believed in what Mr. Knightley had said when he told her she was no friend to Harriet. Although she had not constructed and built up Harriet’s love as she did in the first instance, she should have repressed Harriet’s interest in Frank when she first admitted to it.

When Emma heard Harriet’s footsteps coming she was as anxious about them as she imagined Mrs. Weston had been when Emma was approaching Randalls. Harriet had already heard the news from Mr. Weston and thought it was odd news. Harriet was not upset or disappointed. Emma did not know what to say to her. Harriet wondered if Emma knew about the engagement, or their being in love, and decides that she must have as she usually knows what is going on. Emma cannot imagine why she would encourage Harriet in her feelings if she knew Frank was in love with Jane. Harriet did not understand—she was not in love with Frank. Emma did not understand. Harriet was upset that she had been misunderstood—how could Emma have thought she meant Frank when there were more superior people to look at. Emma then wondered if it was Mr. Knightley who she was in love with. Harriet is—she thought she had been as clear as possible. Emma admitted that everything Harriet had said seemed to point to Frank after she had been rescued from the gypsies. Harriet suddenly realizes that what she said could have been interpreted in two ways—she had meant that Mr. Knightley had done her a great service and made her happy. Although Emma cannot speak, Harriet asserts that crazier engagements had taken place, and that if Mr. Knightley certainly did want to marry her Emma should not get in her way. Emma wondered if she had received any hint as to Mr. Knightley’s affection and Harriet asserted she had. Emma wondered to herself why it was worse for Harriet to be in love with Mr. Knightley than with Frank. She suddenly realized that she did not want anyone else to marry Mr. Knightley but herself.

She also saw how inconsiderately she had treated Harriet and then asked her for proof of Mr. Knightley’s affection for her. From the time they had danced together, Mr. Knightley had spoken more to her in kindness, and wanted to be acquainted with her. Emma had observed this. He praised Harriet for having gentle and honest feelings, which Emma had heard herself. Some others Emma did not believe were exact pieces of evidence for Mr. Knightley’s feelings. When they were at Donwell, Mr. Knightley had drawn her away from the crowd and appeared to be asking her if her affections were engaged. When Emma had joined them, he had changed the subject. When Mr. Knightley had decided to leave for London, he had confided in Harriet that he would rather not have gone, which was much more than he had said to Emma. Emma wondered if he was actually trying to figure out if Harriet was still in love with Mr. Martin. Harriet denies it—she knows not to care for Mr. Martin now, or to be suspected of loving him. Harriet thanked Emma for her good advice—she was told to observe his behaviour for evidence of his feelings for her, which she had done. Harriet feels that she deserves him. On hearing Mr. Woodhouse’s footsteps, Harriet excused herself. She was much too agitated to be near him. Emma wished she had never set eyes on her before.

Emma tried to sort through her feelings and everything that had happened in the last day. Her first aim was to understand her own heart. She wondered when she had considered him so dear to her. There had not been any time when she had not loved Mr. Knightley, and figured out that she had never truly loved Frank at all. It did not take her long to figure this out, and she was ashamed of all of her feelings except for her love for Mr. Knightley. She had been mistaken at every turn where other people’s feelings were concerned. She wished that she had never pushed Harriet forward and hoped that Mr. Knightley would not debase himself by marrying someone as common as her. She wished she had not persuaded her against marrying Mr. Martin and taken up company with the people she belonged to. If she had not done this, Harriet would not presume to think of Mr. Knightley as being in love with her. Emma had taught her this. Harriet had lost her sense of humility because of Emma.

Only now that she was threatened by the loss of it was Emma aware how much of her happiness depended on being considered first by Mr. Knightley. She had been first in his estimation for a long time and had taken it for granted. She had not deserved it, either, but he had loved her since she was a child. While Harriet was convinced of Mr. Knightley’s affection for her, Emma doubted that Mr. Knightley felt love for Emma. He had been so shocked by her treatment of Miss Bates. She could not deceive herself as she hoped Harriet was doing. If Mr. Knightley never married at all, Emma would be satisfied. She wanted him to continue on in the same way that they had been if Mr. Knightley would not marry her. She did not believe she would marry even if Mr. Knightley asked her. It would remove her from her father and she owed him her care.

Emma hoped that the next time she saw Harriet and Mr. Knightley together that she would be able to figure out what the chances of Harriet being disappointed were. She decided not to see Harriet as it would do neither of them any good. She wrote to her and asked her not to come to Hartfield so that they could avoid conversation of the topic they should avoid. They could meet if there were a group of people around, but only if they acted as if they had not talked about Mr. Knightley. Harriet approved.

Mrs. Weston stopped by Hartfield after visiting the Bates house even though she had not wanted to until everything was settled with Frank. Mr. Weston persuaded her into going. Jane had hardly spoken a word, and she was visibly suffering. Mrs. Weston asked Jane to come with her for a drive in the carriage, during which Mrs. Weston was able to break through some of Jane’s embarrassment and ask her about Frank. They talked a lot about the past and future possibility of the engagement, and Mrs. Weston was sure this was helpful to Jane. Jane blames herself for the engagement and dreads Colonel Campbell hearing about it. It was her love for Frank that overthrew her reason and logic as she had not been brought up to act as she had done so. Emma was afraid that she had caused Jane suffering, but Mrs. Weston knew she did not do it on purpose. Jane sends her many thanks for her continued interest and affection when she was sick. Emma wishes she could do more for her and wishes that she will be happy in marriage. Mrs. Weston reveals that she has not yet received the letter Frank promised he would send.

Emma keenly felt the shame associated with her past treatment of Jane. Had she sought a friend in Jane rather than in Harriet she might have been spared the pain she felt now. That night she thought of the end of Mr. Knightley’s visits to Hartfield which usually brought them happiness, especially on nights of bad weather. She looked ahead to the coming winter with regret—if everything happened as it might, she would lose most of her friends. Hartfield would be empty. When the Westons had a child, they would not see them often. Frank and Jane would cease to belong to Highbury. Mr. Knightley would no longer visit Hartfield at nights. If Mr. Knightley was to marry Harriet, it would double Emma’s pain for she would be well aware that it was her own doing. The only peaceful thought Emma had was that she might act better in the future and find a more rational self. Hopefully she would regret her actions far less in this instance.

With the change in the weather for the better, Emma decides to go outside as much as possible. She goes for a walk around the gardens. Mr. Knightley comes out into the garden to join her, which surprises her for she thought he was still in London. They exchanged general comments, and Emma asked after John and Isabella. She thought he seemed quite serious, and considered he might have told his brother about his plan to marry Harriet and had not received a good response. She also considered he might be trying to build his courage—he might be about to tell her about his engagement to Harriet. Emma could not encourage the subject—he had to do this by himself. Emma starts to tell him about Jane and Frank’s engagement, but Mr. Knightley has already heard of it. Mr. Weston told him. Emma was relieved the news had not come from Mrs Goddard or Harriet. Emma remembered that Mr. Knightley had once tried to warn her, but admits she is probably doomed to be blind. Mr. Knightley tells her that time will heal her wound, but Emma insists he is mistaken. Although she said things that made her ashamed, she has no other reason to regret Frank and Jane’s engagement. Mr. Knightley is overjoyed. She had been tempted by his attentions and allowed herself to seem pleased, but she has never been attached to him. She does not understand his behaviour as he never intended to be attached to her. Mr. Knightley had never had a high opinion of Frank but for Jane’s sake he wished them both well. Emma thinks they are mutually attracted and should be happy. Mr. Knightley is jealous of Frank’s engagement to Jane and that despite his behaviour everyone has forgiven him.

Emma refuses to ask why Mr. Knightley is jealous of Frank, and as he starts to explain, Emma tells him not to say anything. She changes her mind and tells him that if he has anything to say, he should say it. She is his friend and will tell him exactly what she thinks of what he has to say. Mr. Knightley wondered if he would ever succeed with her. Mr. Knightley admits that he could not love her more. Emma could not think—she saw that Harriet’s hopes had been mistaken and that she was pleased she had not revealed Harriet’s secret. He admits he had not aimed at asking her to marry him, but was so delighted in her indifference toward Frank that he could not help but hope. Both of them had changed in mood to a state of happiness. It had been Mr. Knightley’s jealousy that had sent him away from Box Hill and to London. However, the domestic bliss of his brother and Isabella had not given him peace but had reminded him of Emma. The news of Jane and Frank’s engagement gave him hope, then, and he had ridden home in the rain to find out how Emma felt about the news. By the time they went into the house, they were engaged to be married.

Emma was surprised by the change in her feelings in such a short space of time. Mr. Woodhouse did not suspect what was going on between them. Emma decided that night that while her father still lived, her engagement to Mr. Knightley would remain just that. She could not leave him. She would also try to spare Harriet as much pain as she could, but did not know how. She would avoid a meeting with her and then send her a letter to explain everything that had happened. It would be desirable for Harriet to leave Highbury for a while and Emma decided that she should go to Brunswick Square.

The next morning Emma wrote her letter to Harriet but was interrupted by the arrival of Mr. Knightley who sent her into happiness again. When he left, and before Emma could get back to her letter, she received a letter from Randalls which contained Frank’s letter to Mrs. Weston. It details his need to keep the engagement a secret because of the situation at Enscombe. If he had not been engaged to Jane, he would have gone mad. Frank then discusses his treatment of Emma. He pretended to feel more for Emma than he did, but would not have done so had he not been convinced that she did not feel anything for him. It appeared as if they understood one another, and that suited Frank. When he came to Hartfield and was about to tell her the truth, he felt Emma had figured out a part or the whole of his secret. Emma frequently hinted at her knowledge, such as when she insisted he owed Mrs. Elton gratitude for the way Jane was treated. The pianoforte had come from Frank and had Jane known about it she would not have allowed it to be sent to her. He explains that he and Jane argued the morning of the Donwell party and that it chiefly concerned Frank’s behaviour towards Emma. Frank regretted how much pain he had caused Jane, and left for Richmond, convinced that she had grown cold towards him. Jane sent him a letter to break off the engagement, but he received it the morning his Aunt had died and had not had time to send a reply. He received a parcel at Windsor, which contained all of his letters to her and a small note from Jane to express her surprise that she had not received a reply. She encouraged him to send her letters to him to Mrs. Smallridge’s where she would be governess. Frank was angry with himself for his mistakes and regretted how ill he had made her. They managed to reconcile their feelings and save the engagement, and Frank is sure nothing will ever come between them again. He thanks Mrs. Weston for her kindness and hopes that she will be able to forgive him.

Although Emma felt Frank had been wrong on several accounts, he had done it because he was so in love with Jane. She forgave him for his conduct. She thought the letter was so good that when Mr. Knightley returned, she asked him to read it. Although Mr. Knightley thought the letter was long, he had to read it then and there as Emma had to return it to Mr. Weston that evening. Mr. Knightley gives his opinion as he reads the letter. At first he does not seem to care much for Frank’s words, but when he reaches the point where Frank regrets his behaviour, Mr. Knightley agrees and is impressed with his admission. Emma does not think he is as satisfied with the letter as she is, but Mr. Knightley thinks a little better of him, especially as he is very much in love with Jane.

Mr. Knightley changes the subject, then. He has been thinking of how to ask her to marry him without harming her father. Emma announced that she could never leave her father while he was still alive. He had hoped to entice Mr. Woodhouse to move to Donwell with her, but he suggested instead that he should move to Hartfield so that neither of them would have to leave. This theory had not occurred to Emma, who felt Mr. Knightley would be sacrificing a great deal by leaving Donwell and his own habits. The more Emma thought of the plan, however, the more she liked it. She would have been even happier had it not been for her thoughts about Harriet. Mr. Knightley would be forgotten by her eventually, but he would not be able to help her along with his considerate nature.

Emma was pleased to discover Harriet wanted to avoid a meeting, as well. There was a resentment to her letter despite her good natured response, and this only increased Emma’s desire for them to be separated. She managed to acquire an invitation to Brunswick for Harriet. Harriet had wanted to see a dentist for a while, so it was fortunate that she would be off to London. Isabella was keen to help anyone with their health, and was eager to have Harriet in her care. Harriet was to go for at least a fortnight. Now Emma could enjoy Mr. Knightley’s visits and be truly happy without feeling guilty. She still had to admit to her engagement to her father, but she did not want to do this until Mrs. Weston had given birth and was well.

Emma decided to call on Jane and see how she was doing. That she was also secretly interested in what was happening, was an additional benefit to the visit. She had not been in the house since the morning after Box Hill, and the fear of still being unwelcomed by Jane was in Emma’s thoughts as she was driven down there. Jane met her on the stairs, and Emma had never seen her look so lovely. Jane offered her hand and expressed her thanks for Emma’s kindness. Whereas Miss Bates was out, Mrs. Elton was in. Emma wished Mrs. Elton had not been present either, but decided she would have to have patience. Mrs. Elton folded up a letter and smiled with the knowledge of a secret she was keeping between herself and Jane. That everyone else knew the secret was not apparent to Mrs. Elton. She told Jane that Mrs. S. had accepted their apology and was not offended by Jane’s inability to become the governess at her house. Although Mrs. Elton had not named names, Emma knew exactly what she was talking about.  After praising Mr. Perry’s efforts in returning Jane to her former healthier state, Mrs. Elton whispered that she would not mention the Doctor from Windsor who had helped.

Jane asked Emma if she would be willing to attend Box Hill again with the same visitors to try and recreate a happier memory there. Miss Bates stepped in then and did not know what to say—she was trying to keep the engagement a secret, and failing miserably. Mrs. Elton is waiting for her husband to finish a meeting at the Crown with Mr. Knightley, but Emma is sure the meeting was not supposed to be until the next day. Mrs. Elton denies mistaking the day—she believes that the parish at Highbury is troublesome and that they never had these problems at Maple Grove. Jane suggests this is because it was small. Mrs. Elton had never heard such a thing. Jane suggests that it should be small considering the size of the school which Mrs. Elton had previously mentioned. Mrs. Elton compliments her on her intelligence.

Mr. Elton arrived then and was sorry to have missed Mr. Knightley at Donwell for their meeting. He could not find him even though he had sent him a letter asking him if he would be home that day. Mrs. Elton corrects him—surely he means at the Crown. Mr. Elton tells her this is a different meeting, and that no one at Donwell had expected him. Emma had no explanations to give. Mrs. Elton could not believe that Mr. Knightley would do this to him—a man who should have been the last person to have been forgotten. Mrs. Elton blames Mr. Knightley’s servants for forgetting. Emma decided to leave then, as she assumed Mr. Knightley would be waiting for her at Hartfield. Jane took his moment to walk with her down the stairs. Emma tells her she would have talked about the engagement but did not want to be impolite. Jane is grateful for her interest and starts to give her apologies for being ungrateful. Emma refuses to hear them—Jane owes her nothing. Both of them apologize for their reserved and cold nature toward one another. Jane reveals she will be living with Mr. Churchill at Enscombe in three months time after the mourning period is over. Emma wishes her well and expresses her love for things that are out in the open.

Mrs. Weston safely gives birth to a little girl. Emma refused her initial desire to make a match between the girl and one of Isabella’s sons, but was glad the Westons had a girl. It seemed to suit them. Mr. Knightley is sure that Mrs. Weston will dote on and spoil the girl as much as she did for Emma. Emma jokingly wonders what will become of her. Mr. Knightley assures her she will correct herself as she grows older. Emma believes it was because of Mr. Knightley’s help that she corrected herself, but he believes he did her more harm than good. They remember their past—how challenging Emma had been, and how she had always called him Mr. Knightley. Mr. Knightley wondered if she would not call him George, instead. Emma cannot. She will call him George, but she cannot say when out loud—only when “N. takes M.”, i.e. when they marry. Emma wishes that she could talk to Mr. Knightley about Harriet and wondered why he did not comment on their waning friendship. Isabella had sent letters to Emma to keep her informed about Harriet. She had been quite depressed when she had arrived, but Isabella explained this away because of her impending visit to the dentist. After that, she had become her old self again. Emma was pleased to hear that Harriet would be staying for a month instead of just two weeks. Isabella and John would return with her in August.

John had sent Mr. Knightley a letter congratulating him and Emma on the engagement. Emma believes he has suggested that she will, in time, grow worthy of Mr. Knightley’s love. They both consider that they had hoped their family would see the engagement as equal on both sides. John admits he had an idea that his brother was in love with Emma and was not surprised to hear about the engagement. Emma thinks he was not so aware of who his feelings were for. Now that Mrs. Weston was able to receive visitors, Emma had to announce her engagement to Mr. Woodhouse. She did not know how she would do it, but she had to. She made sure to speak cheerfully so that Mr. Woodhouse would not be upset. It was a shock to him, at first, especially as Emma had always said she would never marry. She insisted that it would not be like Mrs. Weston and Isabella because Emma would not leave Hartfield. She knew he loved Mr. Knightley a lot—he was useful and cheerful. The worst of it was done, and their acquaintances and friends helped persuade Mr. Woodhouse that the engagement was a good thing. Eventually, he believed it would be a happy occasion, and that it might not be bad if they had the wedding in the next year or two. Mrs. Weston had been surprised, but was very happy for the announcement.

From here, the news spread. It was a generally approved match. Some disagreed as to where the couple should live, or who was the more fortunate of the couple, but on the whole there were no serious objections made aside from in the Vicarage. Mr. Elton did not care for it. Mrs. Elton felt sorry for Mr. Knightley and did not think he was in love with Emma at all.

The party from London was soon to arrive, and the news agitated Emma. Mr. Knightley came into the room and told her that Harriet Smith was engaged to Mr. Martin. Emma was surprised, but Mr. Knightley had heard the news from Mr. Martin himself. He is afraid that Emma does not like the news at all, as he feared, but suggests that time will bring her around. Emma exclaims that Mr. Knightley has mistaken her silence—she is just surprised he asked her again. It does not make her unhappy. Mr. Knightley reveals how it happened: Mr. Knightley asked Mr. Martin to deliver some papers to John and was asked to join a party which Harriet had attended. He then dined with them the following day and during this visit found an opportunity to ask Harriet. Mr. Knightley thought Mr. Martin was very happy.  He knows that this engagement cannot bring Emma happiness, but in reality she is only trying to hide how happy she was. Emma admits that Harriet has done well, but is surprised as she had reason to believe Harriet was quite against him. Mr. Knightley did not think that Harriet could refuse a man who dearly loved her, and Emma had to laugh at this.

Mr. Knightley is surprised at how much Emma’s opinion has changed on this matter. Emma admits that she was a bit of a fool where it was concerned. Mr. Knightley admitted he has changed where his opinion of Harriet was concerned, too. He had made great efforts to talk to her and get to know her a bit better. He considered that Emma probably thought he was pleading Mr. Martin’s case, but he only wishes Harriet the best. She has excellent principles and good notions, which have secured her happiness. Mr. Knightley believes that Emma is to thank for this, and Emma cannot feel she deserves this praise.

There would now be pleasure and happiness in Harriet’s return, especially as it meant not having to hide anything from Mr. Knightley anymore. On visiting Randalls, they find that Frank and Jane are visiting. Emma and Frank meet for the first time in a long time. He thanks her for forgiving him, and Emma expresses her pleasure at being able to share in his joy for his engagement. They joke about their past tricks with the name Dixon, and Frank shares his surprise that Emma never suspected he and Jane were engaged. He wonders if Emma has pity for them not having met since the day they reestablished their engagement, and Emma does. Frank had endless compliments for the health Jane now had. Emma reminds him of the day he commented that he did not like her complexion. They laugh at this. Emma accuses him of being very amused by his trickery. Frank denies this—he was very depressed by it. Emma compares their behaviour—they are both prone to finding amusement in odd places. They are also to marry two people superior to them. Frank does not think Emma has a superior, but agrees on account of Jane. They are very pleased to have seen each other again. As Emma left Randalls, she was very pleased to have seen Frank again—not only because it meant their friendship was reestablished, but because she was now sure Mr. Knightley was the more superior of the two.

In a few days, Isabella, John and Harriet arrived from London. After an hour alone with Harriet, Emma was satisfied that he feelings for Mr. Knightley were gone and replaced for those for Mr. Martin. Harriet was a little ashamed for the past, but Emma had immediately soothed these feelings by congratulating her on her engagement. Harriet was then very pleased to give her all of the details of the engagement itself. It suggested to Emma that Harriet had always loved Mr. Martin.

They discovered Harriet’s origins: she was the daughter of a tradesman, not of a gentleman as Emma had sworn. Her low rank would have been a blight on a marriage to the Knightly, Churchill or Elton family. Emma accepted Mr. Martin at Hartfield and approved him as a good match for Harriet. Although Harriet would be among people she belonged with and who loved her, it would mean less visits to Hartfield. It was, Emma thought, for the best. Harriet was married to Mr. Martin before the end of September and were the first of the three couples to be so. Jane Fairfax had already left Highbury and had returned to live the Campbells. Frank and Mr. Churchill were in town, and the couple were waiting until November. Emma and Mr. Knightley had decided to have their marriage while John and Isabella were still at Hartfield so they could go away for two weeks to tour the seaside. Mr. Woodhouse was miserable when he heard of the plan, and Emma could not bear to see him suffering.

When Mrs. Weston’s turkeys were stolen one night, Mr. Woodhouse grew scared of Hartfield being broken into and wanted either John or Mr. Knightley to be at Hartfield to protect him. John had to be back in London by November, and so Emma was allowed to decide on the date for her wedding. The wedding itself is far too modest for Mrs. Elton, but all those present wished them well.

The New And The Old Wound

 

David takes charge of transporting Steerforth’s body back to London—Steerforth’s body was carried to the same cottage that currently housed Ham’s body, but once they got him there, it seemed wrong to the carriers to have him under the same roof, so they brought him to the inn. The body didn’t remain there long. Knowing he was the only one who could break the news to Steerforth’s mother, David wasted no time getting an appropriate means of transport from Joram’s, and he set out for London that night at around midnight. Even at that hour, contrary to expectation, groups of townspeople waited to watch them leave.

David arrives at the Steerforth home, which looks shut down—David arrived in Highgate the next day. Leaving the carriage driver with orders to wait for further instructions, he walked the rest of the way to the Steerforth home. The parlor maid who answered the door could see immediately that something was wrong. She asked David whether he was ill, but he replied that he was just tired and distraught. As he sat in the drawing room waiting for the maid to return from announcing his arrival, David noticed that the house had a dismal, shut-down look. The harp hadn’t been played in a while, and he learned from the maid that Mrs. Steerforth never left her room anymore. She had taken to living in her son’s room, probably out of loneliness over his absence.

Miss Dartle quickly loses her composure—After the usual greeting and introductory conversation, David tried to break the news to Mrs. Steerforth as gently as possible, but Miss Dartle caught on quickly and lost her composure. She began to rail on Mrs. Steerforth and David, too, when he tried to calm her down or berate her for her lack of compassion. In Miss Dartle’s mind, no one loved Steerforth more than she had. She would have been his devoted, self-sacrificing wife if she had had the chance. Instead, she received a scar on her lip that marred her face for life. In her view, Mrs. Steerforth had ruined him, encouraging his faults and discouraging whatever was good in him. As far as she was concerned, the mother had gotten what she deserved.

Mrs. Steerforth becomes nonfunctional on hearing the news—Throughout this diatribe, Miss Dartle showed no compassion and a good deal of contempt and mockery of Steerforth’s mother. But it almost didn’t matter. Once the mother realized what had happened, she lapsed into a semi-catatonic state, with an occasional moan being the only sign that she was alive.

Miss Dartle finally expresses compassion for Mrs. Steerforth—David was concerned that Miss Dartle would remain in her relentlessly cruel mode, but just before he left, she drastically changed her manner and began showing affection and concern for Mrs. Steerforth. Still, all Mrs. Steerforth could do was stare into space with a fixed look and moan. As David left the room, he was followed by Miss Dartle’s curses.

Steerforth’s body is returned home; David says his last farewell to his friend—David returned later that day with Steerforth’s body. Mrs. Steerforth was still in catatonic mode, despite multiple attempts by the doctors to help her. She and Miss Dartle hadn’t left Steerforth’s room, so David and those who helped to carry the body laid it on Mrs. Steerforth’s own bed. Before leaving the house, David closed all the curtains and shades, leaving the room with Steerforth for last. In a final act of farewell to his friend, he took Steerforth’s motionless hand and placed it against his heart.

The Emigrants

 

David takes steps to prevent Mr. Peggotty and Emily from learning about Ham and Steerforth–David was determined not to let word of Ham’s and Steerforth’s deaths get back to his emigrant friends, so he told no one, with the exception of Traddles and Mr. Micawber, whose help he enlisted. Mr. Micawber’s job, which he took on with great flourish and enthusiasm, was to prevent Mr. Peggotty from seeing a newspaper.

The Micawbers adjust their style for the great outdoors—As preparation for his new life in Australia, Mr. Micawber had outfitted himself with an oilskin jacket, a straw hat, and a telescope. Mrs. Micawber had wrapped herself in a shawl and put on a tight bonnet, as had Miss Micawber. Master Micawber wore a Guernsey shirt and sailor pants, and the younger children were all dressed in waterproof clothing. In short, they were ready for the great outdoors.

Everyone gathers to help with the preparations—David found the Micawbers in front of the Hungerford Steps as they watched some of their belongings leave by boat. They were staying in a room overlooking the river above a nearby pub, where David also found Agnes, his aunt, and Peggotty helping with last-minute clothing preparations before 7 a.m. the next day, when all emigrants had to be on board. Mr. Peggotty was there, too, and in the midst of all the commotion, David quietly told him the false but comforting message that Emily’s note had been delivered to Ham and that all was well. David’s goal was to see his friends off happy and untroubled, no matter how dark the reality was.

Mr. Micawber invites his friends for one last round of punch—Mr. Peggotty announced that all well-wishers could see their friends off the following day in the afternoon at Gravesend, where the ship would be docked before leaving. Until then, Mr. Micawber added, the men would be busy guarding their families and things, and, as Traddles just reminded him, there should be time for one more cup of punch—and all were invited!

More adjustments for life in the bush—David noticed that all the older Micawbers now carried bush knives, and it was his own foot-long version that Mr. Micawber now used to prepare the punch after first getting the ingredients from the bar downstairs. He even went so far as to wipe the knife on his sleeve. Moreover, the Micawbers no longer drank out of glasses but out of tin cups, apparently to get used to the rugged life that awaited them.

Another arrest and bail-out; Mrs. Micawber keeps hoping her family will appear—As Mr. Micawber was expounding upon this, he received a message asking him to come downstairs. Mrs. Micawber’s hunch was that it was someone from her family, finally come to make amends and say goodbye. In fact, it was an officer who had come to arrest Mr. Micawber on another charge by Uriah Heep. David was presently informed of this through another note, and promptly went downstairs to pay it and have Mr. Micawber released. Returning to the room upstairs, Mr. Micawber gave a vague excuse for his absence and then, apparently to ease his own mind, handed Traddles an elaborate calculation of his remaining debts, with compound interest. Unaware of the real reason for her husband’s momentary disappearance, and disappointed but undeterred in her hopes, Mrs. Micawber still believed that her family would show up at Gravesend at the last minute.

Mrs. Micawber’s faith in Mr. Micawber’s prospects in the brave new world of Australia—Aunt Betsey and David urged Mrs. Micawber to write when she got the chance. Both Mrs. and Mr. Micawber assured them they would, and Mr. Micawber added that it would be an easy thing, with all the ships going back and forth, and that the distance wasn’t worth mentioning—an exaggerated assessment in David’s view. Mrs. Micawber then launched into a speech about Mr. Micawber’s talents, his position in the new world, and her expectation that it would strengthen his ties with their home country, which had never given him the credit or opportunity he deserved. She felt he was an uncommon case and that he would rise to a high position in Australia, which would gain him recognition back in England. In her opinion, he should take charge of his destiny now and claim his due. Mr. Micawber, who was ready to put his experience in Britain behind him, had his doubts at first, but gradually saw the merit in her point of view and expressed his gratitude for her determined confidence. On that note, Aunt Betsey proposed a toast, and a beaming Mr. Peggotty shook hands with Mr. Micawber. In that moment, David felt that all would be well and that Mr. Peggotty, too, would do well wherever he went.

A final farewell on board the ship; one last arrest and bail-out—When David checked on them the following day, the Micawbers had already left by 5 a.m. in a boat for Gravesend, where he and Peggotty later met them to say their final goodbyes. The ship itself was mid-river, so that they had to take a smaller boat to get to it, which was apparent from the many boats that already surrounded it. Arriving on deck, David discovered from Mr. Peggotty that Mr. Micawber had been arrested one final time. But per David’s request, Mr. Peggotty had paid the bill, and now David paid him back.

A variety of emigrants and well-wishers crowd the boat; David spots Emily—In the dim lighting of the ship’s hull, David could see it was crowded with emigrants and their belongings. There were people of all different types, ages, and careers: smiths, farmers, children, parents, young adults, newborn infants, old people—all engaged in various activities as they said goodbye and prepared to leave on their long voyage. Off to the side by an open porthole, David noticed someone who resembled Emily. Another woman had just kissed her goodbye and moved off, but by the time David realized that her graceful manner reminded him of Agnes, he had already lost her in the crowd.

David and Mr. Peggotty say their final farewells; David finds Martha among the emigrants—The time had come for all visitors to leave, and Mr. Peggotty turned to David and asked him whether he had any last-minute messages or concerns. David answered that there was one—Martha. Just before that, David had noticed a young woman in black who was helping Mrs. Gummidge organize their belongings. Mr. Peggotty tapped her on the shoulder, and as she stood up, David saw that it was Martha. She was so overcome with emotion just then that she burst into tears. David blessed Mr. Peggotty for taking her with him, and in that moment he felt a deep love and respect for this kind and good man. David’s only other remaining mission was to give Mr. Peggotty Ham’s parting message, without revealing that Ham had died. That was hard, but even harder was not reacting when Mr. Peggotty gave him a loving message in return.

Last goodbyes as the ship moves off into the sunset—Peggotty had been sitting on a chest, crying, and David now said his final goodbyes to his emigrant friends before taking his dear old nurse with him into the little boat. It was sunset by then, and the beauty of the ship, with all the people crowded on deck in silence as they waited to wave their final farewells, left him with feelings of both sadness and hope. As the ship started to sail away, cheers arose from the small boats and were returned by the ship’s passengers. All of a sudden, David noticed Emily standing next to her uncle, who now pointed out David and Peggotty. Seeing Emily waving to them for the last time, David wished in his heart that she would be true to her uncle, who loved and cared for her. As the ship sailed off into the fading light and night fell on the English shore, David felt that night had fallen on his life.

Absence

 

David’s journey: an outline of his inner changes—Chapter 58 is about David’s journey abroad, though it’s more about his inner journey than about his external travels, which he barely mentions. Even then, the chapter is fairly simple as it explains how he went from a sense of overall numbness to grief and despair and, finally, to the remembrance of an old love that might once have become something more.

A three-year journey as a means of processing his emotions—David’s travels abroad lasted three years and encompassed many places and sights, but with little enthusiasm and with an ongoing sense of being removed from it all. As the shock of his recent losses gradually wore off, their reality began to hit home, and David’s suppressed grief rose to the surface. It encompassed not only his own losses, mistakes, and youthful dreams, but what might have been—lives that might have blossomed more fully had they not been cut short.

David’s heart begins to open in the purity of the Swiss countryside—After many months of aimless wandering, David finally arrived in the Swiss mountains. There, in the beauty of a Swiss valley at sunset, he began to feel a faint sense of peace and hope. Something of the purity and wonder of the place opened his heart, and for the first time since Dora’s death, he sobbed from the depths of his soul.

David receives a packet of letters—Immediately before that, David had picked up some letters at the village post office. He had barely kept in touch with his friends and relations, informing them of his latest destination but unable to write anything beyond that. This was the first packet he had received in a while, having missed a number of others.

David reads a comforting letter from Agnes—The letter he opened was from Agnes, who after one brief line about her own happiness and success in her latest endeavors, proceeded to write about her hope and confidence in David’s character and future development. She knew that, no matter what difficulties befell him, no matter how much pain he experienced, he would make the right choices and grow from his trials. He had done this before as a boy, and he would do it again. And she would always be there beside him, proud of his past and future accomplishments. That letter of comfort and hope was exactly what David needed. He read it many times and wrote Agnes, telling her that although he did not yet measure up to her view of him, he would work toward becoming that.

The dawning of a new life—This chapter contains some of the book’s most beautiful scenic descriptions, and like many scenic descriptions in Dickens, they depict a state of being. In this case, the pure beauty of the Swiss valley—the green trees and pasture, the sunlit snow-capped mountains, the singing shepherds’ voices, the fading colors of the sunset—all point to the dawn of a new life and hope, a new purity, like the clearing of the air after a violent storm. At the end of the last chapter, night fell as the ship sailed away, and now, having lived through the dark night of his own soul, David began to see a new light dawning in his heart through the words of one who had been a steady guide and comfort to him since his boyhood.

Agnes’s encouragement gives David new hope and resolve—Buoyed by Agnes’s sense of confidence in him, David resolved to try to become what she saw in him. One thing he appreciated about Agnes was that her vision for him was never accompanied by any sense of pressure. In that spirit, he allowed himself another three months to just be. By then, a year would have elapsed since the beginning of his journey, and he would decide what to do next.

David spends another two years in Switzerland, begins to write again, and regains a sense of self—David spent those three months in the valley, and when they were up, he decided to stay in Switzerland a while longer and write, wintering in Geneva and spending the rest of his time in the valley. He began to come out of his shell again and soon had many warm new friendships, and he took comfort and inspiration from nature. He also resumed his disciplined routine of writing and before long had sent Traddles a finished story for publication. After a break, he started his third novel, and before it was halfway through, he realized he was ready to go home. Aside from regaining a sense of self, he had accumulated much in the way of knowledge and experience, and he felt healthy again, which was not the case when he left England.

David becomes aware of his complex feelings for Agnes—There was one other thing David wanted to mention before leaving this chapter of his life. His complex feelings for Agnes, which remained suppressed for a long time, began to surface during his period of darkness and despair. It occurred to him that, through the impetuous choices of his younger years, he had undervalued her love and possibly thrown away the opportunity of its evolving into something more. Dora’s intuitions on the subject had also haunted him, and he had an inkling that Agnes might have felt something more for him at one point, but he wasn’t sure. Now as he returned to his native shores three years later, he knew he had feelings and thoughts of that nature, but he felt the opportunity to realize them was gone, and he didn’t want to disrupt what they had.

Return

 

Returning to London in the fall—David returned to London on a cold, dreary, foggy evening in autumn, before the long summer vacation for the courts and universities had ended, Michaelmas term not beginning until October. After his travels through Europe, London’s houses, though familiar, seemed bleak to him, and some had even been pulled down to make way for changes in the neighborhood.

A lonely return by himself in the London fog—Change was, of course, to be expected not only in the physical surroundings but in the lives of those close to him. Traddles was slowly breaking into the legal field and was living in chambers at Gray’s Inn, one of the Inns of Court, and Aunt Betsey had returned to her house in Dover. David’s friends and relatives weren’t expecting him so soon, and because he wanted to surprise them, he hadn’t arranged for anyone to meet him and therefore felt a bit lonely. This was quickly eased, however, by the warmth from the familiar shop windows glowing through the fog.

David inquires about Traddles at the inn—On entering into the coffee shop at Gray’s Inn, where David would also be spending the night, he inquired about Traddles’s exact address. He next asked how Traddles was doing in his career as a lawyer. The first waiter David asked was not aware of any great reputation on his part, and the head waiter had never heard of him, nor did he seem interested. He was more intent on taking David’s dinner order.

After a discouraging response, David wonders if Traddles will succeed—David felt sorry for Traddles and wondered if he would ever make a go of it. It didn’t help that the heavy, traditional environment of Gray’s Inn, personified by the head waiter and the coffee room, seemed full of rules and regulations, unbending and unchanging. Everything was perfectly polished and maintained—sedate, old, and expensive. In such an environment, where little changed in a decade, someone like Traddles would come across as an unlikely upstart, and the thought that his friend stood no chance saddened David.

David hears girls laughing as he walks up to Traddles’s apartment—David quickly finished his dinner and headed off to see his old friend. Traddles lived on the top floor of No. 2 in the Court, and as David made his way up the dimly lighted staircase, he was surprised to hear the sound of girls laughing. When he stopped to listen, one of the old, decrepit planks gave way, and the noise he made upon stumbling interrupted the laughter.

A happy reunion—Arriving at Traddles’s door, he was greeted by a young boy attendant, who, after some hesitation, let David in and escorted him to the sitting room to see Traddles. Traddles was sitting at a table, apparently working, and both the boy and Traddles looked out of breath. But whatever hesitation was previously there disappeared when Traddles saw David. Instead, there was a happy reunion, with hugs, handshaking, and a mutual exchange of warm greetings and new information.

Traddles and Sophy are recently married; the laughing girls are her sisters—Traddles was impressed by David’s growing fame, and David learned that Traddles had finally married the “dearest girl in the world” just six weeks earlier. Apparently, David had not received Traddles’s latest letter. Sophy, who had been hiding behind the curtain, now came out, beaming. The laughing girls, it turned out, were her sisters, and just as David was coming up the stairs, Traddles had been playing with them. He had stopped when he heard a visitor arrive in the interest of looking professional.

Traddles makes the best of his situation—Traddles was delighted to have the laughter of young girls in his apartment. He felt it brought a sense of lightness and life to the heaviness of Gray’s Inn, even if it was deemed unprofessional. Living there with Sophy was also considered unprofessional, but they had no other options, and Sophy was extremely capable, which justified it in Traddles’s mind. And, as Traddles mentioned several times, they were ready to “rough it.” David asked which of the girls were there at the moment and learned that there were five, including the oldest (the “Beauty”), the invalid, and the two younger ones, whom Sophy had educated. Sophy had organized beds for all her sisters in their three-room apartment, while she and Traddles cheerfully made do with the floor the first week, afterwards graduating to a small attic room, which Sophy fixed up and which had an excellent view.

Traddles’s patience and determination—Traddles was also thrilled to point out the marble table and flowerpot he had been saving for so long. The other furniture was just functional, and they still didn’t have any silver, but all that would come in due time and would mean even more when they finally had it. After all, it had been a long wait for both Traddles and Sophy, so when Traddles began to make headway as a lawyer, he went down to Devonshire to convince Sophy’s father, the Reverend Crewler, that the time had come for him and Sophy to be married. Sophy, too, was willing, even though Traddles wasn’t completely settled. Her father agreed, on the condition that Traddles would earn £250 a year and provide a decent living space. Traddles also promised that if anything happened to the two parents, he would take care of the girls, assuming he was in a position to do so. The Reverend agreed to convince Sophy’s mother that it was time to let go of her daughter, even if she had been a great help to the whole family. That was easier said than done. Sophy had been so useful to the family that they resented having Traddles take her from them. But they did let go, and Traddles was happy and cheerful, even though he rose at five and worked constantly and hard.

David meets Sophy’s sisters—Suddenly, their attention shifted. The girls had come into the room, and Traddles now introduced them to David, who was impressed with their freshness, describing them as a “perfect nest of roses.” David found them all pretty, especially the oldest, but Sophy had a brightness and cheer that made her unique, and it was clear that she loved and believed in Traddles (“Tom,” to her) as much as he did her. She also emphasized that Traddles was David’s devoted friend and that when they visited with Aunt Betsey and Agnes in Kent, the main subject on everyone’s mind was David.

Traddles and Sophy’s cheerful generosity and competency leaves David with a feeling of hope—Another thing that delighted David about both Sophy and Traddles was their generosity and helpfulness toward Sophy’s sisters. Neither of them was troubled by the girls’ various whims and demands, which were ongoing. Instead, they were constantly and cheerfully at their service. They seemed to take great pleasure in being there for others and never appeared exhausted or upset. In the process of serving everyone, Sophy’s knowledge and capabilities in different areas—whether of singing songs, fixing hair, writing notes, or whatever else—had grown so much that no one thought of relying on anyone but her, out of all the sisters, to do anything. In return for all their love and good cheer, Sophy and Traddles received a tremendous amount of love and respect, and the whole experience left David in good spirits. It was like a breath of fresh air in an otherwise dry and staid environment, and it left him with a feeling of hope about Traddles’s future, regardless of his surroundings.

David recognizes Mr. Chillip in the coffee room—It was in this mood that David returned to the coffeehouse and sat down by the fire. Before long, his thoughts turned from Traddles’s happiness to the difficulties of his own life, and he thought of Agnes and what he had lost by preventing that relationship from ever growing into something more than a brother-sister interaction. As he sat musing on these things, he noticed meek, little Mr. Chillip, the delivery room doctor, sitting off in a corner by himself reading the newspaper. David therefore walked up to him and asked him how he was. After a bit of bantering, Mr. Chillip still couldn’t figure out who David was, so David finally told him. That elicited an emotional reaction, and they got to talking about many things—that David looked like his father, that his fame as a writer was spreading, and that Mr. Chillip and his family had moved from Blunderstone to Bury St. Edmunds about seven years earlier because his wife had inherited some property.

David buys Mr. Chillip a drink and hears about the Murdstones’ latest escapades—David noticed that Mr. Chillip had emptied his glass of negus,[i] so he offered to buy them both another drink. The topic turned to David’s loss of Dora. Mr. Chillip had heard about it through Miss Murdstone, whose distinctive character had made an impression on him. In fact, the Murdstones had moved to the same neighborhood as the doctor and his family. Mr. Murdstone had once again married a young, fresh, innocent woman, and he and his sister then proceeded to terrorize her into a state of misery, weakness, and imbecility. Throughout the conversation, the doctor kept quoting Mrs. Chillip, a “great observer,” who noticed, among other things, that Mr. Murdstone referred to himself as a Divine Nature and delivered dark, severe speeches in the name of religion. Mr. Chillip himself could see no support for the Murdstones’ doctrine in the New Testament, and it was no surprise that the entire neighborhood disliked them, which, in the Murdstones’ view, meant they were all consigned to hell.

Memories of David’s birth; opinions on Aunt Betsey—After a bit more chatting, David discovered that Mr. Chillip was at Gray’s Inn as a professional witness in a hospital patient insanity case. He confessed that such cases made him nervous, just as Aunt Betsey’s behavior at the time of David’s birth had had a detrimental effect on him that took a while to unravel. David noted that he was on his way to visit the same Aunt Betsey and that she was, in fact, a wonderful, kind woman. That was too much for Mr. Chillip to process, and he took it as his cue to go to bed.

A cheerful reunion in Dover—The next day, David arrived at his aunt’s old cottage in Dover, where he was warmly and joyfully received by Aunt Betsey, Mr. Dick, and Peggotty, who now kept house for them. Aunt Betsey got a good laugh from Mr. Chillip’s fearful memory of her, and both Peggotty and David’s aunt went on about Mr. Murdstone and his “murdering” sister.

[i] Similar to hot toddy, a heated mixture of liquor, water, sugar, and spices

Agnes

 

Catching up on the news—David and Aunt Betsey spent the evening by the fire talking of things like the emigrants’ successful beginnings in the new world, Janet’s marriage to a prosperous Dover tavern owner, and Aunt Betsey’s approval as shown by her decision to attend the wedding. Mr. Dick, too, was doing well. He had found a new vocation in copying, through which he managed to keep Charles I at bay.

Aunt Betsey steers the conversation toward the subject of David and Agnes’s relationship—Changing the subject, Aunt Betsey wanted to know when David planned to go to Canterbury. His aunt had picked up on something going on between Agnes and him, even though they hadn’t yet admitted it to each other, and now she steered the conversation in that direction. But David wasn’t ready to talk about his love for Agnes, so while it was obvious Aunt Betsey understood, she refrained from being too direct.

More detail about the Wickfields; Aunt Betsey’s intuitive understanding of David’s feelings—Before David even mentioned Agnes, Aunt Betsey read his mind and warned him that Mr. Wickfield had aged but also grown in his understanding of human nature. Agnes, on the other hand, was as beautiful and good as always, and she was busy with her school. In Aunt Betsey’s opinion, if she educated the girls to be like her, she would do much for the world. David hesitated before asking whether Agnes was romantically involved. According to Aunt Betsey, she had many suitors and could have married any number of times. Were there any viable ones, though—any that deserved her? Aunt Betsey had her suspicions but wouldn’t say anything beyond that. David’s stated hope was that Agnes would confide in him as a brother, just as he had always confided in her. But it was clear from the way Aunt Betsey looked at David throughout the conversation that she understood there was more going on. Now she said nothing but quietly placed her hand on his shoulder as they both looked into the fire.

David visits Agnes the following day—David rode to Canterbury the next day. On arriving at the old house, he hesitated at first but finally got up the courage to go in. The maid led him up the stairs to the drawing room, and David was relieved to see that all vestiges of the Heeps’ presence were gone. He had only told the maid he was a friend from abroad, so it was a happy surprise for Agnes when she saw him, and he, too, was happy to be in her peaceful presence again as he hugged her closely. She embodied home for him, a feeling of goodness, welcome, peace, and understanding he had long yearned for. Now she sat beside him, and though he still couldn’t bring himself to express his feelings, her calming influence had already begun its soothing magic, even when she spoke of Emily and of Dora’s grave.

David asks Agnes about herself but backs off when she seems uncomfortable—David asked Agnes about her own personal life, claiming she never spoke about herself. Agnes didn’t know what to say. They had their home back, and her father was healthy and content again, and that, to her, was everything. David pressed for more, but she denied there was anything else. Even so, she seemed uncomfortable, and he noticed a paleness in her face and a sadness to her smile at that moment. He changed the subject, and they spoke of different things—how the school kept her busy, how long David planned to visit, and that the old house was restored to its former happy self.

An evening with the Wickfields brings up thoughts about the past—Agnes had to finish teaching school for the day, so David went out for a walk about the town. The conversation had left him unconvinced that he could ever be anything more to Agnes than a loving brother, so he resolved to do this as faithfully as possible, as she had done for him. When David returned for dinner, Agnes’s father was back from his gardening, his latest pastime, located a bit beyond Canterbury. They had dinner with Agnes and about six little schoolgirls, and after dinner, they all went up to the drawing room, where they had tea while the little girls studied, played, and sang. After the girls left, the three of them reminisced about the past, although Mr. Wickfield spoke of many regrets. Yet Agnes had made it all worthwhile for him, and he would not change anything. For the first time, too, Mr. Wickfield spoke of his wife, who died of a broken heart after her father, a severe man who disapproved of her marriage, renounced her. Agnes was only two weeks old at the time of her death, and in her, Mr. Wickfield saw much of his wife and feared his daughter had suffered in similar ways. David wondered what he meant by this last statement. Yet even without a full understanding on David’s part, Agnes’s devotion for her father was clear, and David now gained a deeper sense of it.

Restrained communication between Agnes and David—When her father finished, Agnes played some old tunes on the piano. While she played, she asked David whether he had any thoughts of going abroad again. He asked her how she felt about it, and when she said she hoped he didn’t, he made it clear that her wish was his wish. He was trying to broach the subject of their relationship, and he finally did, but in a hesitant way. The most he could do at this point was to profess his undying love and commitment to her as a brother, no matter whom she loved or married. He felt he didn’t deserve her after all the years of falling in love with other women, and he misinterpreted the restrained emotional play he saw on her face.

David’s silent hopes—David had promised to be back in Dover by nighttime, and as he thought of their conversation on the way back, it seemed to him that neither of them was happy. He had resigned himself to a restrained love on earth, but he hoped that someday the transcendent nature of their true love would unfold in a heavenly realm.

Two Interesting Penitents

 

David visits Traddles to sort through his fan mail, delivered there since his stay abroad—David spent several months in Dover finishing his book, with periodic visits to London to soak up city life or visit Traddles. Traddles had been managing David’s business affairs since his journey abroad, and in the meantime, David’s fan mail had grown so large that he arranged to have it delivered to Traddles’s address. Every so often, David would stop by to discuss some business point with Traddles and to sift through the bushels of mostly irrelevant letters.

Sophy trains herself as a copyist to help out Traddles—By now, Sophy’s sisters had returned to Devonshire, and Sophy herself kept busy managing their domestic affairs and, when necessary, staying out of sight of the stuffy legal types who might disapprove of the presence of a woman in chambers. David also noticed on many visits that Sophy would quickly shove a copybook into a drawer, and he wondered why. Eventually he discovered from Traddles that she had been training herself as a copyist so she could take over that job when “Tom” became a judge someday. He was proud of the professional results she had achieved and had no qualms about saying so, but Sophy herself felt it was better to keep it secret because of current attitudes toward women in the professions.

Traddles praises Sophy’s many wonderful qualities—David commented on what a wonderful wife she was, which got Traddles praising her many good qualities. She was cheerful and adaptable, always on time, discreet in her movements while staying in chambers, an excellent housekeeper, attractive and energetic, a good cook and baker, creative within their means, and fun to be with. For them, taking walks together to go window shopping and dream of what they would buy each other was as good as actually buying the thing. Or they would buy half-price theater tickets and enjoy every minute, or just sit together in a warm apartment on a cold night. Traddles was thrilled to be so lucky.

Mr. Creakle, now a magistrate, invites David to inspect a “model” prison system—David wondered if Traddles ever drew skeletons anymore, and Traddles had to admit that he did occasionally indulge in it. That got them talking about Mr. Creakle, and David remembered he had a letter from their old schoolmaster, who had since been appointed a Middlesex Magistrate and had invited David to observe how well their prison system worked. They claimed that solitary confinement was the secret to creating model prisoners, and David wanted to know if Traddles would come along to verify this great achievement. David also found it interesting that Mr. Creakle, who had been a tyrant toward the schoolboys, was gentle and considerate toward the worst criminals. Traddles was not surprised, and they both agreed to say nothing of their former treatment, which had apparently been forgotten now that David was famous.

David and Traddles tour the prison; David finds the prisoners’ excellent conditions ironic—A day or two later, David and Traddles visited the huge prison, which David remembered cost a great deal to build. They were met by several magistrates and some other visiting gentlemen. Mr. Creakle looked more or less the same, though older, and judging from his manner toward Traddles and David, he had no recollection of his former tyrannical behavior as their school principal. David was struck by the extreme concern the group had for the prisoners’ comfort as well as by the gentlemen’s total focus on prison life. Their tour began in the kitchen, coincidentally at around dinnertime, where David couldn’t help noticing the high quality of the meals being delivered to the prisoners’ cells. It occurred to him that the mass of workers who earned an honest living, including soldiers and sailors, rarely enjoyed a meal of that quantity and quality.

A flawed “perfect” system—The system’s supposed efficacy was based on the “perfect” isolation of individual prisoners, but as the men toured the building, David noticed that the isolation was not as perfect as claimed and that it was likely (and eventually proved) that the prisoners communicated enough that they knew a lot about each other, which was the opposite of the goal. The other thing he noticed repeatedly as they visited the prisoners’ cells was that their professions of remorse and reform all sounded strangely similar. Nor did he get a feeling of trust from any of them. It was easy to profess reform where there was no chance of temptation, but he doubted they would be able to resist reverting to their old ways under real outside circumstances.

Model Prisoner No. 27, the cream of the prisoner crop—Throughout the tour, the group kept hearing about Model Prisoner No. 27, who supposedly far outshone the others in his degree of reformation and his belief in the system that had converted him. He had such a good reputation at the prison that the tour leaders were saving his cell for last, so by the time they got there, David’s curiosity had reached its peak. When they finally arrived at his cell, Mr. Creakle, after looking through the keyhole, reported that No. 27 was reading a hymn book. The excitement that followed that revelation created so much competition for the keyhole that they decided to allow No. 27 to come out and meet the visitors in person.

No. 27 is brought out to meet the visitors—To Traddles’s and David’s great surprise, they found themselves looking at Uriah Heep. Uriah recognized them immediately and inquired after their well-being, which impressed the gentlemen on the tour. When Mr. Creakle asked him how he was, Uriah gave his usual profession of humility. Every time someone asked about his comfort, he used it as a chance to confess how wrong he had been and how much he had changed. Most of the party believed him.

Model Prisoner No. 28; the model prisoners speak—The magistrates now brought out another model prisoner, No. 28, who turned out to be none other than Mr. Littimer. Mr. Littimer emerged reading a book, with his “highly respectable” veneer perfectly intact. Each model prisoner had a champion, Mr. Creakle being Uriah’s and another gentleman being in charge of Littimer, and these champions guided the conversation. When asked how he was, Littimer’s answers had the same hollow ring to them as Uriah’s, but other than David and Traddles, the gentlemen visitors seemed not to pick up on this. The other thing Uriah and Littimer had in common, once they had made a show of how reformed they were, was to point the finger at other people, either as being the cause of their own guilt or as being in need of reform, as though the whole of London shared their qualities and backgrounds. Both Uriah and Littimer specifically addressed David, and Littimer even asked him to relay his “forgiveness” of Emily, in spite of her bad behavior when he tried to “save” her. Uriah gave a similarly sanctimonious speech, mentioning that David had hit him (to the horror of the naïve gentlemen) but that he forgave him. David couldn’t help noticing at one point that Uriah’s expression was more evil than ever and that when Littimer excused himself to return to his cell, he and Uriah exchanged looks as though they knew each other.

David asks a warden about the two prisoners’ crimes—David noticed that the magistrates were not keen to talk about the prisoners’ crimes, so he quietly asked one of the wardens, who he guessed had a more honest, less deluded view of the prisoners. He learned that Uriah was in prison for forgery, fraud, and conspiracy against the Bank of England. He had almost gotten away with the crime, but the bank managed to lure him into revealing himself. He was sentenced to permanent transportation. Littimer had been arrested for stealing £250 worth of valuables and cash from a young gentleman. He was on his way to America when he was recognized, in spite of his disguise, by Miss Mowcher, who grabbed his legs and wouldn’t let go. Littimer tried to beat her off, but even the arresting officers couldn’t pry her away, and she ended up being a star witness in court. Littimer was also sentenced to transportation.

David and Traddles’s conclusions about the model prison—David and Traddles left the prison convinced that no real reform had taken place. Littimer and Heep were the same deceivers they had always been, and the system that was supposed to be so promising held no real promise at all.

A Light Shines

 

David and Agnes still keep their real feelings to themselves—Two months passed, and it was now Christmastime. David had visited Agnes once a week or more during that time, and his deep love and respect for her remained as strong as ever. Still, he could not express his real feelings and had relegated his desires to a mental shelf, where they would take a backseat to whomever she chose as her husband. His only consolation, other than her company, was that he could be to her what she had been to him for so many years—a trusted confidant, counselor, and friend—and that was what he now committed himself to being.

Aunt Betsey’s intuitions; David decides to find out if there’s another man—The only person who had any inkling of their feelings was Aunt Betsey, who silently surmised it through her usual astute observation of her nephew’s face. However, they never spoke of it directly, although Aunt Betsey left broad hints now and then, and there seemed to be a deep understanding between them. Agnes herself showed no signs of change, except for the occasional thoughtful look and sad smile, and she did not seem to have any awareness of David’s real feelings. All this reticence increased whatever confusion already existed, and David convinced himself there had to be another man, but he could not understand why Agnes kept her secret from him. In his determination to repay her for her faithfulness, he resolved to clear things up.

David gets the wrong idea from Aunt Betsey—It was in this frame of mind that David bid his aunt goodbye on his way out into the cold winter’s night. But before leaving, he could not refrain from asking her whether she knew anything more about Agnes’s secret love. Aunt Betsey said she thought she did, and when he asked her whether she was sure, she offered that she thought Agnes was going to marry. Determined to stick to his resolve and face this cheerfully, David wished God’s blessing upon her. His aunt, agreeing, blessed her husband, too. Hearing this bit of news from his aunt, David mounted his horse and set out for Canterbury, more determined than ever to broach the subject with Agnes.

David asks Agnes to reveal her secret love to him—Arriving at the Wickfields’, David found Agnes reading by herself. She quickly realized he was in a serious mood and gave him all her attention. It didn’t take David long to tell her that he knew she had a secret and he wanted her to share it with him, to let him be there for her. He assured her that his motives weren’t selfish, that he could take a back seat to whomever else she chose.

Agnes refuses to tell David and fends him off—Apparently, he struck a painful chord in her. As though she couldn’t face it, she moved quickly to the window, and he saw that she was crying, but something about her tears gave him hope. At the same time, he didn’t want to cause her pain, so he begged her to tell him what was going on, but she was adamant—she couldn’t speak about it just now. As she fended him off, David searched for some clue, and he began to wonder if there wasn’t some hope, after all, for the feelings he had buried. At first, he brushed them off. He wanted her to know that his motives were pure and unselfish, that he would be there for her no matter how their relationship changed outwardly. Hearing this, Agnes quietly informed him that he had misunderstood. Her secret was nothing new. She had held it within her for many years, but it was not something she would share, and she could bear it alone.

In a burst of passion, David and Agnes finally tell each other the truth—David’s thoughts were racing now as he realized the implications of what she was saying. As she began to walk away, he took her by the waist and held her close to him. He hadn’t come to tell her his deeper feelings, but now all his love, passion, and hopes burst forth as he dared to believe she might love him as something more than a friend. It was the closest thing to a marriage proposal, and when he saw her shedding tears of joy, he knew he had understood correctly. All the struggles he had felt in the last few years, the incompleteness he had sensed in his earlier marriage, the feeling of guidance and home she had always provided—all of it came spilling out now, and Agnes, too, admitted that she had loved David her whole life. That night, they walked together in the wintry fields, looking up at the moon and the stars and feeling at last that they had found peace and happiness together.

David and Agnes make their new relationship known to Aunt Betsey—The next day, David and Agnes went to Dover together, arriving in time for dinner. At first, they revealed nothing, but Aunt Betsey sensed something was different because she kept looking at David for clues, which meant putting on her spectacles. When she saw no hint of anything, she would remove them and use them to rub her nose, a sign that something was bothering her. Following dinner, when David told Aunt Betsey he had mentioned their conversation to Agnes, his aunt was perturbed and scolded him for betraying her trust. But when David put his arm around Agnes and they both leaned over her chair together, she caught on and became hysterical with joy—the only time David ever saw her like that. She hugged Peggotty and then hugged Mr. Dick. It was a happy moment for everyone.

David and Agnes are married; Dora’s secret request—Two weeks later, David and Agnes were married. It was a small but joyous wedding, with only the Traddles and the Strongs as guests. Afterwards, as David and Agnes drove off together, David felt at last that this was the love he had waited for all his life. But Agnes had one more thing to confess. Could David guess what it was? The night Dora died, she made Agnes promise that no one else would take her place.

A Visitor

 

Ten years later, David is a wealthy, successful author who lives in London with his family—It has been ten years since David and Agnes’s wedding. In the meantime, David has grown wealthy and famous as an author, and he and Agnes have moved to London and now have at least three children. When Chapter 63 opens, the family is together in the sitting room on a spring evening. There is a fire in the fireplace, the children are playing, and the scene is one of contentment and peace.

Mr. Peggotty visits from Australia—A servant announces the arrival of a personal visitor, a simple, rugged man resembling a farmer. It is Mr. Peggotty, and there is a joyful reunion. He is older, but still healthy and strong, and the children are immediately drawn to him. Mr. Peggotty recounts how he decided to take the long trip from Australia to visit David and his family before he got too old to do so. He would be staying in England for a month.

Mr. Peggotty tells of the hard work and success of the whole group of emigrants—After insisting that he stay with them, David and Agnes sat on either side of Mr. Peggotty, eager to see him and hear everything he had to tell. The word was that with hard work and patience, all the emigrants had prospered, between sheep farming, cattle raising, and other things. Mr. Peggotty felt with certainty that their group had been blessed.

Emily lives with her uncle, avoiding other people except when helping those in need—David and Agnes both wanted to know how Emily was doing. She had settled in with her uncle and was happy when around him, but she shied away from other people, except when helping those in need. Between that and her chores, she stayed busy. She could have married many times but felt that possibility was over for her, and there was something sorrowful and shy in her manner. No one there knew her history or why she was the way she was, though many people liked her.

Mr. Peggotty thanks David for keeping secret the bad news about Ham and Steerforth—Mr. Peggotty also thanked David for keeping the bad news about Steerforth and Ham from them. Mr. Peggotty himself, when he finally found out, managed to keep it from Emily for a year, but eventually she found out through an old newspaper brought by a traveler. David and Agnes wanted to know if the news had changed Emily. Mr. Peggotty said it did for a long time, but being away from people, out in nature, and staying busy helped her get through it. He saw her too often to gauge it correctly, but he thought he had noticed a difference and wondered whether David would recognize her.

Martha marries and moves to the bush—Agnes and David asked next about Martha. Mr. Peggotty told them that Martha married a year or so after they arrived. Women were few there, and her husband was a farmhand who had traveled a considerable distance. He proposed to her, and they moved to their own solitary place in the bush country. Before doing so, she asked Mr. Peggotty to tell her suitor her real life story, which he did.

Mrs. Gummidge decks a marriage suitor but remains loyal and helpful to Mr. Peggotty—What about Mrs. Gummidge? Mr. Peggotty started roaring with laughter when he heard the question, and soon they were all laughing uncontrollably. Even Mrs. Gummidge received a marriage proposal, and she reacted by smashing a pail over the suitor’s head. That incident aside, she remained completely changed. She totally dispensed with her lost, forlorn attitude and was the most helpful, hardworking, faithful person you could imagine.

The emigrants move to Port Middlebay after thriving in the bush; Mr. Peggotty pulls out the town paper—Finally, there was Mr. Micawber. What happened to him and his family? David and Agnes knew he had paid all his debts, which spoke well for him, but they were curious to learn more. Mr. Peggotty smiled and pulled out a newspaper. He explained they had all gotten their start in the bush country, where Mr. Micawber had worked as hard as anyone. Eventually, though, they had prospered so much they all moved to a town called Port Middlebay Harbour. Mr. Peggotty presented the Port Middlebay Times to tell the rest of the story.

Mr. Micawber fulfills Mrs. Micawber’s prediction; all the Micawbers and Mr. Mell, now Dr. Mell, and his family are thriving—The paper told of a dinner given in honor of Mr. Micawber, who was now a District Magistrate and regular columnist for the paper. The large room was packed to overflowing, and the town’s elite had crowded in to pay their respects to Wilkins Micawber, Esquire. He was introduced and toasted by Dr. Mell, David’s former teacher at Salem House, who had founded his own grammar school in Port Middlebay and was now married with children of his own, one of whom, Helena, was applauded for her beautiful dancing. Mr. Micawber’s own speech was received with great enthusiasm and applause. Further toasts were extended to Mrs. Mell and all the Micawbers: Mrs. Micawber and her extended family in England; Master Micawber, who delighted the audience with his singing; and the former Miss Micawber, now Mrs. Ridger Begs. The dinner and toasts were followed by dancing.

Mr. Peggotty points out a letter in the paper addressed to David and written by Mr. Micawber—Mr. Peggotty now drew their attention to another article, this one written by Mr. Micawber himself and addressed in formal terms to David, with the subtitle “The eminent author.” It was a public expression of gratitude and admiration for David’s contribution and achievements as an author. Mr. Micawber especially wanted to express that the people of Port Middlebay, who were as civilized as anyone, were his avid readers and always interested in David’s latest venture.

Seeing Peggotty and Aunt Betsey; visiting Ham’s grave; saying goodbye for the last time—During Mr. Peggotty’s time with David and Agnes, Peggotty and Aunt Betsey also came to see him. Toward the end, he and David took a trip to Yarmouth to see Ham’s grave, and in keeping with a promise he made to Emily, Mr. Peggotty collected some of the earth. Finally, David and Agnes both saw him off, and David knew it would be for the last time.

A Final Retrospective

 

What became of everyone?—In his short closing chapter, David recalls the faces of those still living who played a role in his journey, and now he traces the outcome of their lives.

Aunt Betsey—First, there is Aunt Betsey, now in her eighties. Her eyesight might be weaker, but she still stands as tall and strong and energetic as ever, even walking six miles in the cold. Aunt Betsey’s longstanding wish for a goddaughter named Betsey Trotwood has been fulfilled, and that child was followed by a younger sister named Dora.

Peggotty—Then there’s Peggotty, also wearing glasses but still with her wax candle and needlework, and shoved in her pocket is the crocodile book, a cherished remnant of David’s childhood.

Mr. Dick—Entertaining himself and a new generation of boyish Davids with his kites is Mr. Dick. He still holds Aunt Betsey in the highest regard, but he is no longer too concerned with the Memorial.

Mrs. Steerforth and Rosa Dartle—Mrs. Steerforth has grown old and hunched over, and her mind is weak. She is easily confused, until she remembers that her pride and joy, her son, is dead, and she is struck by the pain of that realization. Her companion, Rosa Dartle, is the same edgy, bitter, impatient person, but when needed, she still has some compassion left for Steerforth’s mother.

Julia Mills, Jack Maldon—Julia Mills, now married to an extremely wealthy Scotchman, has returned from India. She is surrounded by the trappings of money and “society,” which includes the likes of such shallow individuals as Jack Maldon—and she has forgotten love and romance. To David, such an existence is the opposite of the things that make life worth living.

Dr. Strong, Annie, and Mrs. Markleham—Dr. Strong, that kindly old gentleman, has gotten as far as the letter D in his dictionary. But his marriage with Annie is happy, and his mother-in-law has been tamed.

Traddles and Sophy—Of course, there’s also Traddles. Time has moved a bit further along at this point, and Traddles is balding now, though what remains is as unruly as ever. He is on his way to becoming a judge, though he is modest about it. And he’s thrilled that he’s achieved all his life goals, and more. He is earning almost twice as much money as he expected to, his boys are receiving excellent educations, and Sophy’s sisters are either happily married or living with either them or their father, the Reverend. Only the “Beauty,” now a widow, is unhappy, having been through an imperfect marriage. But Traddles feels they can and will restore things.

It is Sophy’s birthday, and the house is full of relatives. It is one of the houses Sophy and Traddles once dreamt of owning, long before they could afford it. Now that they actually live there, they still give away the best rooms to Sophy’s sisters, who always seem to be staying with them for one reason or another. But for all their wealth, there is still the same simple good cheer that has always been a part of their home.

Agnes—Such are the faces that people David’s life. Yet among them all, one stands out and shines more brightly than all the others. It is Agnes, the guiding light of his life, who is beside him now and will be there till the end.

Just as entire cultures benefit from the cultivation of emotional intelligence, so, too, can individuals, companies, families, and other groups. But the authors warn that EQ skills need to be actively maintained—that they can be unlearned as well as learned and improved. A stressful situation or a discouraging environment can have a detrimental effect that needs to be guarded against by conscious, habitual practice of EQ skills. Given the strong connection between EQ and prosperity, those who neglect to do this run the risk of decreasing their overall quality of life—economically, personally, and professionally.

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